Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-o-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (l.) Batsch) fruit

Juan Yan, Zhi-xiang Cai, Zhi-jun Shen, Rui-juan Ma, Ming-liang Yu


To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in the early stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT), the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

Received: December 12, 2016; Revised: January 12, 2017; Accepted: February 7, 2017; Published online: March 2, 2017

How to cite this article: Yan J, Cai Z, Shen Z, Ma R, Yu M. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit. Arch Biol Sci. 2017;69(4):611-7.


blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch); catechin; epicatechin; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; gene expression

Full Text:



Dixon RA, Xie DY, Shashi BS. Proanthocyanidins – a final frontier in flavonoid research? New Phytol. 2005;165:9-28.

Sonia DP, Maria TS. Anthocyanins: from plant to health. Phytochem Rev. 2008;7:281-99.

Lepiniec L, Debeaujon I, Routaboul JM, Baudry A, Pourcel L, Nesi N, Caboche M. Genetics and biochemistry of seed flavonoids. Ann Rev Plant Biol. 2006;57:405-30.

Tanner GJ, Francki KT, Abrahams S, Watson JM, Larkin PJ, Ashton AR. Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants. Purification of legume leucoanthocyanidin reductase and molecular cloning of its cDNA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31647-56.

Holton TA, Cornish EC. Genetics and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Cell. 1995;7:1071-83.

Peng QZ, Yue ZZ, Liu CD, Ke GL, Xie DY. An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants. Planta. 2012;236:901-18.

Shen ZJ, Ma RJ, Yu ML, Xu JL, Cai ZX, Ni LJ, Yan SB. Evaluation of antioxidant factors in peach with three types of flesh color. Sci Agric Sin. 2012;45(11):2232-41.

Shen ZJ, Confolent C, Lambert PP, Quilot-turion B, Yu ML, MA RJ, Pascal T. Characterization and genetic mapping of a new blood-flesh trait controlled by the single dominant locus DBF in peach. Tree Genet Genomes. 2013; 9:1435-46.

Vizzotto M, Cisneros L, Byrne D. Total phenolic, carotenoid, and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of peach and plum genotypes. Acta Horticul. 2006;713:453-5.

Yan J, Shen ZJ, Cai ZX, Yu ML. Advances of study on phenolic compounds in peach fruit. J Fruit Sci. 2014;31(3):477-85.

Yan J, Cai ZX, Shen ZJ, Zhang BB, Qian W, Yu ML. Determination and comparison of 10 henolic ompounds in each with hree ypes of lesh olor. Acta Horticul Sin. 2014;41(2):319-28.

Francisco AT, María IG, Paedar C, Andrew LW, Betty H, Adel AK. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS Analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:4748-60.

Zhao Y, Wang LR, Cao K, Zhu GR, Fang WC, Chen CW, Peng FT. Genetic diversity of anthocyanin in peach fruit and the evaluating criterion of red–flesh peach. J Plant Genet. Resour. 2013;14:167-72.

Jiao Y, Ma RJ, Shen ZJ, Yan J, Yu ML. Gene regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in blood peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) during fruit development. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci. 2014;15(9):809-19.

Kataoka I, Beppu K. UV irradiance increases development of red skin color and anthocyanins in 'Hakuho' peach. Hortscience. 2004; 39(6):1234-7.

Ogendiwin EA, Peace CP, Nicolet CM, Rashbrook VK, Gradziel TM, Bliss FA, Parfitt D, Crisosto CH. Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene (PpLDOX): a potential functional marker for cold storage browning in peach. Tree Genet Genomes. 2008;4(3):543-54.

Tsuda T, Yamaguchi M, Honda C, Moriguchi T. Expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in the skin of peach and nectarine fruit. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2004;129(6):857-62.

Daniela R, Richard VE, Rebecca AH, Carlo A, Vanina Z, Roger PH, Guglielmo C, Andrew CA. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:68.

Zhou H, Wang KL, Liao L, Gu C, Lu ZQ, Andrew CA, Han YP. Peach MYB7 activates transcription of the proanthocyanidin pathway gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase, but not anthocyanidin reductase. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:908.

Zhou J, Chen ZL, Zhang Q, Wang HQ. Effects of bagging on accumulation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in peach pericarp during fruit maturity. Acta Horticul Sin. 2009;36(12):1717-24.

Lombardo VA, Osorio S. Borsani J, Lauxmann MA, Bustamante CA, Budde CO, Andreo CS, Lara MV, Fernie AR, Drincovich MF. Metabolic profiling during each fruit development and ripening reveals the metabolic networkst hat underpin each developmental stage. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1696-710.

Yan J, Shen ZJ, Cai ZX, Yu ML, Ma RJ, Qian W, inventors; Beijing Yingke Law Firm, assignee. The method of anthocyanin extraction and detection with HPLC in blood ̶ flesh peach. China patent CN 103,760,289 B. 2015 Jul 22.

Tong ZG, Gao ZH, Wang F, Zhou J, Zhang Z. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in peach using real ̶ time PCR. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:71.

Vinterhalter B, NinkoviĆ S, Kozomara B, Vinterhalter D. Carbohydrate nutrition and anthocyanin accumulation in light grown and etiolated shoot cultures of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Arch Biol Sci. 2007;59(1):51-6.

Xie DY, Dixon RA. Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis – still more questions than answers? Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2127-44.

Kennedy JA, Hayasaka Y, Vidal S, Waters EJ, Jones GP. Composition of grape skin proanthocyanidins at different stages of berry development. J Agr Food Chem. 2001;49:5348-55.

Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fitoterapia. 1996;67:3-29.

Jaakola L, Määttä K, Pirttilä AM, Törrönen R, Kärenlampi S, Hohtola A. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development. Plant Physiol. 2002;130(2):729-39.

Joao RMA, Eleonora D, Anja P, Fabrizio C, Ric de Vos CH, Bettina D, Fabienne M, Gaetano P, Thilo CF, Arnaud GB, Stefan M, Carlo R. Characterization of major enzymes and genes involved in flavonoid and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis during fruit development in strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;465:61-71.

Chen Q, Yua HW, Tanga HR, Wang XR. Identification and expression analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the fruit of blackberry. Sci Hortic. 2012;141:61-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.