Protected area networks are insufficient for the conservation of threatened farmland species: a case study on corncrake (Crex crex) and lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) in Serbia

Dimitrije Radišić, Milica Mišković, Sandra Jovanović, Tijana Nikolić, Goran Sekulić, Ante Vujić, Dubravka Milić

Abstract


Paper description:

  • Protected areas are often insufficient for the conservation of threatened farmland birds like the Corncrake (Crex crex) and the Lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor).
  • Gap analysis showed that protected areas in Serbia harbor a small proportion of suitable habitats for both species (determined by maximum entropy modelling (MaxEnt)). Habitats of the Corncrake, a species predominantly found in hilly areas, are more prevalent compared to the lowland habitats favored by Lesser grey shrike.
  • Mechanisms for habitat protection outside protected areas in Serbia are lacking. Distribution modelling enabled us to direct conservation measures within and beyond protected areas.

Abstract: To conserve threatened farmland species requires an estimate of the representation of their habitats within protected areas, especially in countries with inadequate mechanisms for protecting and managing habitats outside of protected areas. We conducted a gap analysis to evaluate the conservation status of suitable habitats for two threatened farmland bird species — corncrake (Crex crex) and lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) — within the networks of national protected areas (NPAs) and important bird areas (IBAs) in Serbia. We determined the distribution of suitable habitats using MaxEnt based on climate, topography and land-cover variables. We found that the proportion of suitable habitats within the NPAs is very low (12.31% and 2.04% for the corncrake and lesser grey shrike, respectively), although it is significantly higher for both species within IBAs (25.86% and 9.91%, respectively). Upland farmland habitats (preferred by corncrake) are better represented within both networks (especially IBAs) than lowland habitats (preferred by lesser grey shrike). Our spatially explicit distribution models identify suitable habitats within and beyond the NPAs and IBAs that require monitoring and appropriate conservation measures. The low representation of suitable habitats within these networks is an obstacle to the conservation of both species and other farmland birds in Serbia.

https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS180924053R

Received: September 24, 2018; Revised: November 25, 2018; Accepted: November 28, 2018; Published online: December 4, 2018

How to cite this article: Radišić D, Mišković M, Jovanović S, Nikolić T, Sekulić G, Vujić A, Milić D. Protected area networks are insufficient for the conservation of threatened farmland species: A case study on corncrake (Crex crex) and lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) in Serbia. Arch Biol Sci. 2019;71(1):111-21.


Keywords


farmland birds; protected areas; Lanius minor; Crex crex; gap analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Krebs JR, Wilson JD, Bradbury RB, Siriwardena GM. The second Silent Spring? Nature. 1999;400:611-2

Butler SJ, Vickery JA., Norris K. Farmland biodiversity and the footprint of agriculture. Science. 2007;315:381-4.

Van Dyck H, Van Strien AJ, Maes D, Van Swaay CAM. Declines in common, widespread butterflies in a landscape under intense human use. Conserv Biol. 2009;23:957-65

Donald PF, Green RE, Heath MF. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe’s farmland bird populations. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;268:25-9.

Kleijn D, Kohler F, Báldi A, Batáry P, Concepción ED, Clough Y, Díaz M, Gabriel D, Holzschuh A, Knop A, Kovács A, Marshall EJP, Tscharntke T, Verhulst J. On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:903-9.

Wretenberg J, Lindstrom A, Svensson S, Part T. Linking agricultural policies to population trends of Swedish farmland birds in different agricultural regions. J Appl Ecol. 2007;44:933-41.

Butlera SJ, Boccaccio L, Gregory RD, Vorisek P, Norrisa K. Quantifying the impact of land-use change to European farmland bird populations. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2010;137:348-57.

Tryjanowski P, Hartel T, Báldi A, Szymánski P, Tobółka M, Herzon I, Goławski A, Konvǐcka M, Hromada M, Jerzak L, Kujawa K, Lenda M, Orłowski M, Panek M, Skórka P, Sparks TH, Tworek S, Wuczýnski A,˙Zmihorski M. Conservation of farmland birds faces different challenges in Western and Central-Eastern Europe. Acta Ornithol. 2011;46: 1-12.

Baldi A, Batary P. Spatial heterogeneity and farmland birds: different perspectives in Western and Eastern Europe. Ibis. 2011;153:875-6.

Sekulić G. [Corncrake Crex crex in Serbia]. Ciconia. 2011;20:28-45. Serbian.

Soulé ME. Conservation: tactics for a constant crisis. Science. 1991;253: 744-50.

Campedelli T, Tellini Florenzano G, Londi G, Cutini S, Fornasari L. Effectiveness of the Italian national protected areas system in conservation of farmland birds: A gap analysis. Ardeola. 2010;57:51-64.

Science for Environment Policy. Agri-environmental schemes: how to enhance the agriculture-environment relationship. Agri-environment Schemes. 2017;57:1-44.

Kleijn D, Sutherland WJ. How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? J Appl Ecol. 2003;40:947-69.

Princé K, Moussus JP, Jiguet F. Mixed effectiveness of French agri-environment schemes for nationwide farmland bird conservation. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2012;149: 74-9.

Puzović S, Radišić D, Ružić M, Rajković D, Radaković M, Pantović U, Janković M, Stojnić N, Šćiban M, Tucakov M, Gergelj J, Sekulić G, Agošton A, Raković M. [Birds of Serbia: Breeding population estimates and trends for the period 2008-2013]. Novi Sad: Društvo za zaštitu i proučavanje ptica Srbije i Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu; 2015. 160 p. Serbian.

Zavod za zaštitu prirode Srbije. Osnovni podaci. [Internet]. Beograd: Zavod za zaštitu prirode Srbije. 2018 Jan [cited 2018 Jun 30]. Available from: http://www.zzps.rs/novo/index.php?jezik=sr&strana=zastita_prirode_osnovni_podaci.

Puzović S, Sekulić G, Stojnić N, Grubač B, Tucakov M. [Important Bird Areas in Serbia]. Beograd: Republika Srbija, Ministarstvo životne sredine i prostornog planiranja; Zavod za zaštitu prirode Srbije i Autonomna pokrajina Vojvodina, Pokrajinski sekretarijat za zaštitu životne sredine i održivi razvoj; 2009. 277 p. Serbian.

BirdLife International. European birds of conservation concern: populations, trends and national responsibilities. Cambridge (UK): BirdLife International; 2017. 171 p.

BirdLife International. Crex crex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2018 June 10]. Available from : http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22692543/1. e.T22692543A60016665.

BirdLife International. Lanius minor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2018 June 10]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/22705038/1. e.T22705038A60179080.

Puzović S, Simić D, Saveljić D, Gergelj J, Tucakov M, Stojnić N, Hulo I, Ham I, Vizi O, Šćiban M, Ružić M, Vučanović M, Jovanović T. [Birds of Serbia and Montenegro – breeding population estimates and trends: 1990-2002]. Ciconia. 2003;12:35-120. Serbian

BirdLife International. Crex crex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2018 June 10]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692543A86147127.en. e.T22692543A86147127.

del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions; 1996. 821 p.

Green RE, Rocamora G, Schäffer N. Populations, ecology and threats to the Corncrake Crex crex in Europe. Vogelwelt. 1997;118:117-34.

Collar NJ, Crosby MJ, Stattersfield AJ. Birds to Watch 2: The World List of Threatened Birds. Cambridge (UK): BirdLife International; 1994. 407 p. (Birdlife International Conservation Series; no. 3).

Mischenko A. Corncrake Crex crex monitoring in European Russia in 2002- 2003: a pilot study. Revista Catalana d’Ornitologia. 2008;24:65-70.

Sukhanova O, Mischenko A. Monitoring Corncrake Crex crex numbers in European Russia: the first stage. Ornis Hungarica. 2003;12:135-41.

Fourcade Y, Engler JO, Besnard AG, Rödder D, Secondi J. Confronting expert-based and modelled distributions for species with uncertain conservation status: A case study from the corncrake (Crex crex). Biol Conserv. 2013;167:161-71.

Keišs O. Recent increases in numbers and the future of Corncrake Crex crex in Latvia. Ornis Hungarica. 2003;12-13:151-6.

Bellebaum J, Koffijberg K. Present agri-environment measures in Europe are not sufficient for the conservation of a highly sensitive bird species, the Corncrake Crex crex. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2018;257: 30-7.

Šćiban M, Rajković D, Radišić D, Vasić V, Pantović U. [Birds of Serbia - critical list of species]. Novi Sad: Pokrajinski zavod za zaštitu prirode, Društvo za zaštitu i proučavanje ptica Srbije; 2015. 194 p. Serbian.

BirdLife International. Lanius minor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2018 June 10]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22705038A87339356.en. e.T22705038A87339356.

Yosef R, International Shrike Working Group. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 13, Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Editions; 2008. Chapter 16, Family Laniidae (shrikes); p. 732-73.

Lefranc N, Worfolk T. Shrikes: a guide to the shrikes of the world. Mountfield: Pica Press; 1997. 192 p.

Chiatante G, Brambilla M, Bogliani G. Spatially explicit conservation issues for threatened bird species in Mediterranean farmland landscapes. J Nat Conserv. 2014;22(2):103-12.

Sekulić N, Šinžar-Sekulić J, editors. [Emerald Ecological Network in Serbia]. Beograd: Republika Srbija: Ministarstvo životne sredine i prostornog planiranja, Zavod za zaštitu prirode Srbije; 2010. 100 p. Serbian.

Stevanović V, Vasić V, editors. [Biodiversity of Yugoslavia with overview of Species of International Importance]. Beograd: Biološki fakultet i Ecolibri; 1995. p. 562. Serbian.

Banković S, Medarević M, Pantić D, Petrović N, Šljukić B, Obradović S. The growing stock of the Republic of Serbia - state and problems. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry. 2009;100:7-30.

Sekulić, G. Recommendations for Implementing the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories in Serbia. In: Getzner M, Jungmeier M, editors. Protected Areas in Focus: Analysis and Evaluation. Proceedings in the Management of Protected Areas, vol. 4. 2013 Klagenfurt: Verlag Johannes Heyn. p. 26-31.

Heath MF, Evans MI. Important Birds Areas in Europe: priority sites for conservation. Cambridge (UK): BirdLife International; 2000. 804 p. (BirdLife International Conservation Series; no. 8).

Republic of Serbia, Ministry of agriculture and environmental protection. The fifth national report to the United Nations Convention on biological diversity. Belgrade: Republic of Serbia, Ministry of agriculture and environmental protection; 2014. 121 p. CBD Fifth National Report – Serbia.

Budka M, Kokociński P. The efficiency of territory mapping, point-based censusing, and point-counting methods in censusing and monitoring a bird species with long-range acoustic communication - The Corncrake Crex crex. Bird Study. 2015;62(2):153-60.

Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. The WorldClim Interpolated Global Terrestrial Climate Surfaces. [Internet]. Berkeley (CA, USA): University of Berkeley. 2005 [cited 2016 Jan 15]. Available: http://www.worldclim.org/current.

Marquardt DW. Generalized inverses, ridge regression, biased linear estimation and non-linear estimation. Technometrics. 1970;1:591-612.

Jarvis A., Reuter HI, Nelson A, Guevara E. Hole-filled seamless SRTM data V4. [Internet] International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). 2008 [cited 2016 Jan 15]. Available from.: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org.

Corine Land Cover 2006 raster data [Internet]. Europeand Environmental Agency: 2006 [cited 2016 Jan 15]. Available from: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corinland-cover-2006-raster-2.

Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Modell. 2006;190:231-59.

Phillips SJ, Dudik M. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography. 2008;31:161-75.

Elith J, Phillips SJ, Hastie T, Dudík M, Chee YE, Yates CJ. A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Divers Distrib. 2011;17:43-7.

Liu C, Berry P, Dawson T, Pearson R. Selecting thresholds of occurrence in the prediction of species distributions. Ecography. 2005;28:385-93.

Brambilla M, Bergero V, Bassi E, Falco R. Current and future effectiveness of Natura 2000 network in the central Alps for the conservation of mountain forest owl species in a warming climate. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 2015;61(1):35-44.

Vujić A, Radenković S, Nikolić T, Radišić D, Trifunov S, Andrić A, Markov Z, Jovičić S, Mudri Stojnić S, Janković M, Lugonja P. Prime Hoverfly (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) Areas (PHA) as a conservation tool in Serbia. 2016; Biol Conserv. 2016;198:22-32.

Araújo M, Pearson R, Thuiller W, Erhard M. Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change. Glob Chang Biol. 2005;11:1504-13.

Moga CI, Hartel T, Öllerer K, Szapanyos A. Habitat use by the endangered Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor in Central Romania. Belg. J. Zool. 2010;140(2):223-6.

Ajder V, Baltag SE. Factors Affecting Occurrence of Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) and Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) in Low-Intensify Agriculture Areas from Eastern Europe. Pol J Ecol. 2017;65(2):285-94.

Sándor AD, Domşa C. Climate change, predictive modelling and grassland specialists: assessing impacts of changing climate on the long-term conservation of Lesser Grey Shrikes (Lanius minor) in Romania. J Ornithol. 2018;159(2):413-24.

Rajković D.[Population size, density and nest site selection of Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor in northwest Bačka]. Ciconia. 2010;19:20-4. Serbian

Wiens JA, Stralberg D, Jongsomjit D, Howell CA, Snyder MA. Niches, models, and climate change: Assessing the assumptions and uncertainties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19729-36.

Nielsen SE, Johnson CJ, Heard DC, Boyce MS. Can models of presence-absence be used to scale abundance? two case studies considering extremes in life history. Ecography. 2005;28:197-208.

VanDerWal J, Shoo LP, Johnson CN, Williams SE. Abundance and the environmental niche: environmental suitability estimated from niche models predicts the upper limit of local abundance. Am Nat. 2009;174(2):282-91.

Brambilla M, Ficetola GF. Species distribution models as a tool to estimate reproductive parameters: a case study with a passerine bird species. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81(4):781-7.

Аraújo M, Lobo J, Moreno J. The effectiveness of Iberian protected areas in conserving terrestrial biodiversity. Conserv Biol. 2007;21(6):1423-32.

Maiorano L, Falcucci A, Garton EO, Boitani L. Contribution of the Natura 2000 network to biodiversity conservation in Italy. Conserv Biol. 2007;21(6):1433-44.

Birrer S, Spiess M, Herzog F, Jenny M, Kohli L, Lugrin B. The Swiss agrienvironment scheme promotes farmland birds: but only moderately. J Ornithol. 2007;148:295-303.

Keenleyside C, Elts J, Figeczky G, Fier B, Galvánek D, Hellicar M, Ira L, Jobda M, Koorberg P, Kounnamas C, Kurlaviius P, Maderiè B, Medved A, Metera D, Pezold T, Priednieks J, Rainskis E, Raudonikis L, Szilvácsku Z, Vaičūnaitė R, Zámecník V. Farmland birds and agri-environment schemes in the New Member States: a report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Sandy (UK): RSPB; 2006. p. 137.

Gregory RD, van Strien A, Vorisek P, Meyling AWG, Noble DG, Foppen RPB, Gibbons DW. Developing indicators for European birds. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005;360:269-88.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.