Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles: An in vitro biosafety study

Erdal Sonmez, Elanur Aydin, Hasan Turkez, Elvan Özbek, Basak Togar, Kadem Meral, Damla Çetin, Ivana Cacciatore, Antonio Di Stefano

Abstract


With the development of nanotechnology and the wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles, it has become necessary to assess the potential adverse biological effects of magnetite. This study investigated the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative damage of different concentrations of magnetite (0 to 1000 mg/L) in human whole blood cultures. After supplementation of magnetite, the blood samples were incubated for 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) were determined to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of magnetite on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and to evaluate the potential oxidative injury due to increased oxidative stress. Genotoxicity was estimated by by the sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays and determination of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels. The results of MTT and LDH assays showed that the higher concentrations of magnetite (100, 150, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/L) decreased cell viability. Concentrations of magnetite higher than 10 mg/L increased TOS levels and decreased TAC levels in human blood cells. Increasing concentrations of magnetite caused significant increases in MN, SCE and CA rates and 8-OH-dG levels. The obtained results showed that magnetite exerted dose-dependent effects on oxidative damage, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in human blood cells.

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