Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) females from the Adriatic Sea with respect to environmental influences

Slađan Z. Pavlović, Slavica S. Borković-Mitić, Tijana B. Radovanović, Branka R. Gavrilović, Svetlana G. Despotović, Jelena P. Gavrić, Marko D. Prokić, Zorica S Saičić


We investigated the integrated response of antioxidant defense enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and phase II biotransformation enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the liver and white muscle of females of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) from the Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) in winter and spring. The activity of GSH-Px in the liver was significantly increased, while GST activity was decreased in spring compared to the winter. In white muscle, the activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD were increased, while the activities of MnSOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST were decreased in spring when compared to the matching values in winter. The activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD in winter were markedly lower in the muscle than in the liver, while the activity of MnSOD in the muscle was higher when compared to the liver. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clear separation of the investigated antioxidant biomarkers between tissues and seasons, while the integrated biomarker response (IBR) showed that the most intensive antioxidant biomarker response was in the liver in spring. Star plots of IBR showed a dominant contribution of glutathione-dependent biomarkers (GSH-Px, GR and GST) and CAT in both tissues and seasons with respect to SOD isoenzymes. All enzyme activities (except MnSOD) were greater in the liver in comparison to the white muscle. Our results show that the liver possesses a greater capacity to establish and maintain homeostasis under changing environmental conditions in winter and spring. At the same time, seasonal effects are more pronounced in muscle tissue.

Received: October 9, 2017; Revised: December 26, 2017; Accepted: December 27, 2017; Published online: December 28, 2017

How to cite this article: Pavlović SZ, Borković-Mitić SS, Radovanović TB, Gavrilović BR, Despotović SG, Gavrić JP, Prokić MD, Saičić ZS. Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) females from the Adriatic sea with respect to environmental influences. Arch Biol Sci. 2018;70(1):205-14.


antioxidant enzymes; marine fish; oxidative stress; seasonal; tissues

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