Study of soil water-erosion intensity and vegetation cover of an oak-spruce forest in the Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians, Ukraine
Keywords:water soil erosion, tree cover, herbaceous layer, erosion zone, Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians
The effect of soil erosion on dynamic changes in vegetation cover is an important subject of regional ecological research of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Studies on soil erosion on the Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians have focused on the impact of soil water erosion on tree, shrub and herbaceous layers in intensive, moderate, slight and light erosion zones. Results have shown that the intensity of water erosion and runoff, which depend on slope steepness, have a great impact on changes in the vegetation cover. This paper compares the main morphometric parameters of formed ravines, the health and composition of trees, and the composition of the herbaceous layer. The floristic list of the all experimental plots comprised 61 grass species. The stands formed Quercus robur L. and Abies alba L. Assessment of the functional types of plant species showed that the balance between competition, stress and disturbance is disrupted along a gradient of water-erosion soil transformation. Soil erosion is likely to have caused a change in the edaphic matrix. The distribution of life forms is also disturbed. Analysis of species richness of the vegetation cover under water erosion and the prevailing soil conditions showed that the values of indices depend on erosion intensity.
Received: December 6, 2016; Revised: January 30, 2017; Accepted: February 17, 2017; Published online: March 10, 2017
How to cite this article: Blinkova O, Lavrov V. Study of soil water-erosion intensity and vegetation cover of an oak-spruce forest in the Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians, Ukraine. Arch Biol Sci. 2017;69(4):627-36.
Dotterweich M. The history of human-induced soil erosion: geomorphic legacies, early descriptions and research, and the development of soil conservation - a global synopsis. Geomorph. 2013;201(1):1-34.
Duran-Zuazo V, Aguilar R, Martínez R, Franco D. Impact of erosion in the taluses of subtropical orchard terraces. Agricult Ecosys Environ. 2005;107:199-210.
Duran-Zuazo V, Francia M, Rodríguez P, Martínez R, Cárceles R. Soil erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers in a mountainous area (SE Spain): implications for sustainable agriculture. Environmentalist. 2006;26(4):309-19.
Duran-Zuazo V, Pleguezuelo C. Soil-erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers, a review. Agron Sustain Dev. 2008;28(1):65-86.
Gorshenin N. Erosion of forest soils. 2 st ed. Moscow: Forestry industry; 1994. 128 p.
Shrestha D. Assessment of soil erosion in the Nepalese Himalaya: a case study in Likhu Khola Valley, Middle Mountain Region. Land Husbandry. 1997;2(1):59-80.
Puigdefábregas J. The role of vegetation patterns in structuring runoff and sediment fluxes in drylands. Earth Surf Process Landforms. 2005;30(2):133-47.
Rey F. Influence of vegetation distribution on sediment yield in forested marly gullies. Catena. 2003;50(2):549-62.
Lee K, Isenhart T, Schultz C, Mickelson S. Multispecies riparian buffers trap sediment and nutrients during rainfall simulations. J Environ Qual. 2000;29(4):1200-05.
van Dijk P, Kwaad F, Klapwijk M. Retention of water and sediment by grass strips. Hydrol Process. 1996;10:1069-80.
Blinkova O. Analysis of synergies between the vegetation cover and the intensity of outwash in mountain conditions. Ecol Noospher. 2015;26(1-2):66-73.
Wells M. A method of assessing water erosion risk in land capability studies: Swan Coastal Plain and Darling Range. Western Australia: Department of agriculture and food; 2001 Jan. 12 p. Report No.: 73.
Dewitt TJ, Sih A, Wilson DS. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol Evolut. 1998;13 (2):77-81.
Egas M, Dieckmann U, Sabelis M. Evolution restricts the coexistence of specialists and generalists: the role of trade-off structure. Amer Nat. 2004;163(4):518-31.
Menashe E. Vegetation and erosion: a literature survey. In: Rose R, Haase DL, editors. 5th Native plants Propagating and Planting Symposium; 1998 December 9-10; Corvallis, USA, Oregon State University. p 1-10.
Oleynik V. Erodibility of land in agricultural landscapes Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians. Geopolit Reg. 2014;10(2):361-4.
Oleynik V. Hydrological role of forests of Ukrainian Carpathians. 3rd rev ed. Ivano-Frankivsk: Nairi Publishing; 2013. 232 p.
Solodkiy V, Bespalko R, Kasimir I. Exogenous geodynamic processes of Pokutsko-Bukovina Carpathians. J Environ Nat Manag. 2013;13(9):54-63.
Stoyko S. Oak forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians: ecological peculiarities, restoration, conservation. Lviv: Institute of ecology of the Carpathians of NAS of Ukraine; 2009. 219 p.
Anuchin N. Forest taxation. Moscow: Nauka; 1977. 552 p.
Klukin A, Tolstich E. Study of speed contemporary denudation of mountainous slopes. Geomorph. 1977;2(5):62-9.
van der Knijft JM., Jones JA, Montanarella L. Soil erosion risk assessment in Europe. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2000. 34 р. Report No.: EUR 19044 EN.
van der Rompaey AJ, Bazzoffi P, Vieillefont, Jones JA. Validation of soil erosion estimates at European scale. Luxemburg: European Soil Bureau Research; 2003 Feb. 26 p. Report No.:13-EUR 20827.
Zaslavskiy M. Edaphology. 1st ed. Moscow: High school; 1983. 320 p.
Baranovskiy VA, cartographer. Ecologo-geografical atlas of Ukraine [map]. Kyiv: Council of Productive Forces of Ukraine; 2006. 1 sheets: 1:8000000; 65ⅹ 95cm; color.
State Standard Determination of potential danger of soil erosion due to rains of 2008. Rep. No 17.4.4.03-86 (August 1, 2008).
Sanitary Forest Regulation in Ukraine. Resolution of Government of Ukraine. No. 555 (July 27, 1995).
Cherepanov S. Vascular plants of Russia and neighboring countries. Saint Petersburg: World and family; 1995. 992 p.
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress [Internet]. Melbourne (Australia): International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 2012 - [cited 2016 Dec 5]. Available from: http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php
Braun-Blanquet J. Pflanzensoziologie, Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. 3rd ed. New York: Springer, Wien; 1964. 865 p. German.
Raunkiaer C. The life forms of plants and statistical plants geography; being the collected papers of C. Raunkiaer. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1934. 632 p.
Grime J. Plant strategies, vegetation process, and ecosystem properties. 2nd ed. New York: Chichester, John Wiley Second Edition; 2002. 456 p.
Grime J. Plant strategy theories: a comment on. J Ecol. 2007;95(2):227-30.
Magurran A. Ecological diversity and its measurement. New Jersey (Princeton): Princeton University Press; 1998. 192 p.
Bhandari K, Aryal J, Darnsawasd R. A geospatial approach to assessing soil erosion in a watershed by integrating socio-economic determinants and the RUSLE model. Natural Hazards. 2015;75(1):321-42.
Mandych A. Water erosion and sediment yield in mountain areas: natural preconditions. In: Krecek J, Rajwar G, Haigh M, editors. Updating the proceedings of the first and second international conferences on headwater hydrological problems and environmental management in highlands and headwaters; 1996 Jan 1-2; Rotterdam, Netherlands. 1996. p. 27-34.
Donoso M. Water interactions with energy, environment, food and agriculture.Volume II. Uruguay: Montevideo; 2009. 416 p.
Schumm S. The Fluvial Systems. Hoboken: Wiley Interscience; 1977. 338 p.
Clementine G, Raphaël P, Jean-Pierre P, François H. Sampling strategies for the assessment of tree species diversity. J Veget Sci. 1998;9(2):161-72.
Clark D, Read J. Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. J Ecol. 1998;86(1):101-12.
Gale N. The relationship between canopy gaps and topography in a Western Ecuadorian rain forest. Biotropica. 2000;32(4):653-61.
Robert A. Simulation of the effect of topography and tree falls on stand dynamics and stand structure of tropical forests. Ecolog Model. 2003;167(1):287-303.
Do T, Sato T, Saito S, Kozan O, Yamagawa H, Nagamatsu D, Manabe T. Effects of micro-topographies on stand structure and tree species diversity in an old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest, southwestern Japan. Global Ecol Conserv. 2015;4:185-96.
Nagamatsu D, Hirabuki Y, Mochida Y. Influence of micro-landforms on forest structure, tree death and recruitment in a Japanese temperate mixed forest. Ecol Res. 2003;18(5):533-47.
Miles D, Swanson F. Vegetation composition on recent landslides in the Cascade Mountains of western Oregon Can. J For Res. 1986;16:739-44.
van der Sman AJ, Joosten NN, Blom CW. Flooding regimes and life-history characteristics of short-lived species in river forelands. J Ecol. 1993;81(1):121-30.
Bellingham P, Kohyama T, Aiba S. The effects of a typhoon on Japanese warm temperate rainforests. Ecol Res. 1996;11(3):229-47.
Shrestha RP, Schmidt-Vogt D, Gnanavelrajah N. Relating plant diversity to biomass and soil erosion in a cultivated landscape of the eastern seaboard region of Thailand. Appl Geogr. 2010;30(4):606-17.
Zhenhong W. Relationship between plant species diversity and soil erosion on different secondary succession phases of Semi-Humid Evergreeen broad-leaved forest. In: Raine SR,. Biggs AJW, Menzies NW, Freebairn DM, Tolmie PE, editors. Proceeding of the 13th International soil conservation organisation conference; 2004 July 4-8; Brisbane, Australia. 2004. p. 990-2.
Seitz S, Goebes P, Song Z, Bruelheide H, Härdtle W, Kühn P, Li Y, Scholten T. Tree species and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests. Soil. 2016;2:49-61.
Eshghizadeh M, Talebi A, Dastorani M, Azimzadeh H. Effect of natural land covers on runoff and soil loss at the hill-slope scale. Global J Environ Sci Managment. 2016;2(2):125-34.
Nadal-Romero E, Petrlic K, Verachtert E, Bochetand E, Poesen J. Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland. Earth Surf Process Landforms. 2014;39(13):1705-16.
García-Fayos P, Bochet E. Indication of antagonistic interaction between climate change and erosion on plant species richness and soil properties in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems. Global Change Biol. 2009;15(2):306-18.
Novakova J, Krecek J. Impact of herbaceous vegetation on recovery of a harvested headwater catchment. ERWH. 2006;63(1):77-86.
Dickie J, Parsons A. Eco-geomorphological processes within grasslands, shrublands and badlands in the Semi-arid Karoo, South Africa. Land Degrad Develop. 2012;23(6):534-47.
Kilinc M, Karavin N, Kutbay H. Classification of some plant species according to Grime’s strategies in Quercus cerris L. var. cerris woodland in Samsun, northern Turkey. Turkish J Bot. 2010;34:521-9.
Craine J. Reconciling plant strategy theories of Grime and Tilman. J Ecol. 2005;93(6):1041-52.
Smith H, Feber R, Morecroft M, Taylor M, Macdonald D. Short-term successional change does not predict long-term conservation value of managed arable field margins. Biol Conserv. 2010;143(3):813-22.
Hooper D. The role of complementarity and competition in ecosystem responses to variation in plant diversity. Ecology. 1998;79 (2):704-19.
Weiher E, Vander-Werf A, Thompson K, Roderick M, Garnier E, Eriksson O. Challenging theophrastus: a common core list of plant traits for functional ecology. J Veget Sci. 1999;10(50):609-20.
Lavergne S, Garnier E, Debussche M. Do rock endemic and widespread plant species differ under the leaf-height-seed plant ecology strategy scheme? Ecol Lett. 2003;6(5):398-404.
Pimental D. Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Environ Dev Sustain. 2006;8(1):119-37.
Breshears D, Barnes F. Interrelationships between plant functional types and soil moisture heterogeneity for semiarid landscapes within the grassland/forest continuum: a unified conceptual model. Land Ecol. 1999;14:465-78.