Effects of extremely high temperatures on some growth parameters of sessile oak (Quercus petraea /Matt./Liebl.) seedlings in northeastern Serbia



northeastern Serbia, sessile oak, extreme high temperatures, heat wave, seedlings


Paper description:

  • Extreme climate events such as heat and cold waves, ice storms etc. occur with increasing frequency, are the result of climate change which has a significant influence on tree species, especially during young phase of their development.
  • Resistance of sessile oak seedlings to extremely high temperatures increases with age, while the stand canopy has a crucial role in the protection of young sessile oak seedlings from the dangers of high temperatures.
  • The obtained results are important for planning measures related to sessile oak regeneration and development.

Abstract: This paper presents research results on the effects of the extremely high temperatures during the heat wave of August 2017 on the growth and development of injury symptoms in sessile oak (Quercus petraea /Matt./Liebl.) seedlings of different age in the area of the Majdanpek municipality in northeastern Serbia. The starting hypotheses of this study is that the resistance of sessile oak seedlings to extremely high temperatures changes with age and that the stand canopy has a significant protective role in situations where sessile oak seedlings are endangered by extremely high temperatures. The extreme weather conditions at the beginning of August manifested themselves in extremely high temperatures and prolonged absence of precipitation. The average temperature at the beginning of August 2017 was 5.0 to 5.1ºС (depending on the altitude) higher compared to the period of seedling growth (2010-2016). During the heat wave, the recorded precipitation was in the range from 0 to 1 mm. These climate conditions significantly affected the development of young seedlings, causing wilting of smaller or larger parts of the leaf surface and sometimes leading to plant death. Using analysis of variance, differences in the intensity of seedling damage were found to depend on age, height, and the protection provided by the mature stand canopy. The obtained results point to the very important role of mature trees in the protection of seedlings from the dangers of extremely high temperatures.


Received: December 15, 2017; Revised: March 2, 2018; Accepted: March 26, 2018; Published online: March 30, 2018

How to cite this article: Krstić MR, Kanjevac BR, Babić VP. Effects of extremely high temperatures on some growth parameters of sessile oak (Quercus petraea/Matt./Liebl.) seedlings in northeastern Serbia. Arch Biol Sci. 2018;70(3):…


Download data is not yet available.


Beniston M, Stephenson DB, Christensen OB, Ferro CAT, Frei C, Goyette S, Halsnaes K, Holt T, Jylhä K, Koffi B, Palutikof J, Schöll R, Semmler T, Woth K. Future extreme events in European climate: an exploration of regional climate model projections. Clim Change. 2007;81(1):71-95.

Adams HD, Luce CH, Breshears DD, Allen CD, Weiler M, Hale VC, Smith AMS, Huxman TE. Ecohydrological consequences of drought- and infestation-triggered tree die-off: insights and hypotheses. Ecohydrology. 2012;5(2):145-59.

Smith, MD. An ecological perspective on extreme climatic events: a synthetic definition and framework to guide future research. J Ecol. 2011;99(3):656-63.

Cavin L, Mountford EP, Peterken GF, Jump AS. Extreme drought alters competitive dominance within and between tree species in a mixed forest stand. Funct Ecol. 2013;27(6):1424-35.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2014-Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC; 2014. 151 p.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Potential impacts of climate change. Report of Working Group 2, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1-1 to 2. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization (WMO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); 1990.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2007-Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 2007.

Bernhofer C, Matschullat J, Bobeth A. Das Klima in der REGKLAM-Modellregion Dresden. Berlin: Rhombos-Verl.; 2009. 117 p. German.

Gillner S, Vogt J, Roloff A. Climatic response and impacts of drought on oaks at urban and forest sites. Urban For Urban Green. 2013;12(4):597-605.

Mészáros I, Veres S, Szőllősi E, Koncz P, Kanalas P, Oláh V. Responses of some ecophysiological traits of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) to drought stress and heat wave in growing season of 2003. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 2008;52(1):107-9.

Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Roychowdhury R, Fujita M. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(5):9643-84.

Grace J, Berninger F, Nagy L. Impacts of Climate Change on the Tree Line. Ann Bot. 2002;90(4):537-44.

Ducić V, Milovanović B, Đurđić S. Identification of recent factors that affect the formation of the upper tree line in eastern Serbia. Arch Biol Sci. 2011;63(3):825-30.

Liang E, Wang Y, Piao S, Lu X, Camarero JJ, Zhu H, Zhu L, Ellison AM, Ciais P, Peñuelas J. Species interactions slow warming-induced upward shifts of treelines on the Tibetan Plateau. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(16):4380-5.

Reichstein M, Bahn M, Ciais P, Frank D, Mahecha MD, Seneviratne SI, Zscheischler J, Beer C, Buchmann N, Frank DC, Papale D, Rammig A, Smith P, Thonicke K, van der Velde M, Vicca S, Walz A, Wattenbach M. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Nature. 2013;500(7462):287-95.

Reyer CPO, Leuzinger S, Rammig A, Wolf A, Bartholomeus RP, Bonfante A, de Lorenzi F, Dury M, Gloning P, Abou Jaoudé R, Klein T, Kuster TM, Martins M, Niedrist G, Riccardi M, Wohlfahrt G, de Angelis P, de Dato G, François L, Menzel A, Pereira M. A plant’s perspective of extremes: terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability. Glob Chang Biol. 2013;19(1):75-89.

Krstić M. Research on Ecological and Production Characteristics of Sessile Oak Forests and Selection of the Best Regeneration Methods in the Area of Northeastern Serbia. [dissertation]. [Belgrade]: Faculty of Forestry, University of Belgrade. 1989. 247 p. Serbian.

Březina I, Dobrovolný L. Natural regeneration of sessile oak under different light conditions. J For Sci. 2011;57(8):359-68.

Lüpke von B. Silvicultural methods of oak regeneration with special respect to shade tolerant mixed species. For Ecol Manage. 1998;106(1):19-26.

Krstić M. Sessile Oak Forests of Djerdap region – State and Silvicultural Measures. Belgrade, Serbia: Akademska misao; 2003. 137 p. Serbian.

Röhrig E, Bartsch N, von Lüpke B. Waldbau auf ökologischer Grundlage. Stuttgart: UTB; 2006. 479 p. German.

Krstić M, Stojanović Lj. Silviculture in sessile oak forest. In: Stojanović Lj, editor. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia: University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry; 2007. p. 209-77. Serbian.

Govedar Z. Effect of canopy and light regime on natural regeneration in sessile oak stand in the region of Čelinac. Forestry. 2006;58(3):99-108. Serbian.

Relief map of Republic of Serbia [Internet]. 2015 Mar 1 [cited 2017 Dec 15]. Available from: http://beautifulmaps.blogspot.rs/2015/03/serbia-relief-map-2015.html.

Krstić M, Stojanović Lj. Contribition to the study of climatic characteristics of the east Serbia. In: Proceeding of the 7th Symposium on Flora of Southeastern Serbia and Neighbouring Regions. 2002 June 5-9; Dimitrovgrad (Serbia). p. 213-7. Serbian.

Archives of Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia [Internet]. Belgrade: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. 1949 - [cited 2017 Dec 15]. Available from: http://www.hidmet.gov.rs.

Drought Monitoring Bulletin - 22 Sep 2017 [Internet]. Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe – DMCSEE. 2010 [cited 2017 Dec 15]. Available from: http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drought_bulletin/

Rebertus AJ, Shifley SR, Richards RH, Roovers LM. Ice Storm Damage to an Old – growth Oak – hickory Forest in Missouri. Am Midl Nat. 1997;137(1):48-61.

Fensham RJ, Holman JE. Temporal and spatial patterns in drought-related tree dieback in Australian savanna. J Appl Ecol. 1999;36(6):1035-50.

Van Mantgem PJ, Stephenson NL. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest. Ecol Lett. 2007;10(10):909-16.

Nepstad DC, Tohver IM, Ray D, Moutinho P, Cardinot G. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest. Ecology. 2007;88(9):2259–69.

Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, (Ted) Hogg EH, Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim J-H, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manage. 2010;259(4):660-84.

Baumbach L, Siegmund JF, Mittermeier M, Donner RV. Impacts of temperature extremes on European vegetation during the growing season. Biogeosciences. 2017;14(21):4891-903.

Karadžić D, Mihajlović Lj, Milijašević T, Keča N. Sessile oak forest protection. In: Stojanović Lj, editor. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia: University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry; 2007. p. 153-208. Serbian.

Filewod B, Thomas SC. Impacts of a spring heat wave on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest. Glob Chang Biol. 2014;20(2):360-71.

Bauweraerts I, Wertin TM, Ameye M, McGuire MA, Teskey R, Steppe K. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2] and low soilwater availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. Glob Chang Biol. 2013;19(2):517-28.

Vukov D, Galić Z, Rućando M, Ilić M, Ćuk M, Igić D, Igić R, Orlović S. Effects of natural broadleaved regeneration vs. conifer restoration on the herb layer and microclimate. Arch Biol Sci. 2016;68(3):483-93.

Caldeira MC, Ibáñez I, Nogueira C, Bugalho MN, Lecomte X, Moreira A, Pereira JS. Direct and indirect effects of tree canopy facilitation in the recruitment of Mediterranean oaks. J Appl Ecol. 2014;51(2):349-58.

Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Cano FJ, Valbuena-Carabaña M, Gil L, Aranda I. Functional performance of oak seedlings naturally regenerated across microhabitats of distinct overstorey canopy closure. New Forests. 2010;39(2):245-59.

Babić V, Krstić M, Govedar Z, Todorić J, Vuković N, Milošević Z. Temperature and other microclimate condition in the oak forests on Fruška Gora (Serbia). Thermal Sci. 2015;19(2):415-25.




How to Cite

Krstić MR, Kanjevac BR, Babić VP. Effects of extremely high temperatures on some growth parameters of sessile oak (Quercus petraea /Matt./Liebl.) seedlings in northeastern Serbia. Arch Biol Sci [Internet]. 2018Aug.20 [cited 2022May29];70(3):521-9. Available from: https://www.serbiosoc.org.rs/arch/index.php/abs/article/view/2459