Physiological and biochemical responses of young olive trees (Olea europaea L.) to water stress during flowering
Keywords:Olea europaea L, water deficit, ecophysiology, proline, soluble sugars
- Olive-growing activity has a great socio-economic importance in Morocco.
- The negative impact of climatic fluctuations affect young olive plants at a critical growth stage such as flowering. The research was conducted to study the physiological and biochemical responses to water stress in three Moroccan olive varieties at the flowering stage.
- Our results provide a better estimate of the water requirements of young olive trees. They should find use in good orchard management and improve olive production.
Abstract: This study examines physiological and biochemical changes in three Moroccan varieties of young olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown under three different water regimes (control, moderate stress and severe stress). Leaf relative water content (RWC), water potential (yw), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the contents of total chlorophyll (TCC), proline (ProC) and soluble sugars (SSC) were measured at the flowering stage during three growing seasons (2015, 2016 and 2017). ANOVA analyses showed that the effect of the water regime was predominant in all of the examined parameters, except for Fv/Fm, which was under the effect of both water regime and growing season. Impacts of variety and interactions were of lesser magnitude. Water deficit reduced E, yw and gs by 25%, while its effect on RWC and Fv/Fm was a decrease of about 7%; however, increases in SSC and ProC were more than 10%. Among the growing seasons, 2015 flowering displayed the lowest values for RWC, yw, E, gs, TCC and Fv/Fm, and the highest for ProC and SSC. Among plant varieties, no significant differences were observed. The three principal component (PC) axes accounted for 91% of total variance. PC1 was better explained by the water regime, while the growing season fitted PC3 variability. Correlation studies highlighted significant associations between most parameters. Positive relationships were found between RWC, yw, E, gs, Fv/Fm and TCC, while all of these parameters were negatively linked to ProC and SSC.
Received: October 1, 2018; Revised: November 23, 2018; Accepted: November 23, 2018; Published online: December 4, 2018; Published online: Decdember 4, 2018
How to cite this article: El Yamani M, Sakar EH, Boussakouran A, Rharrabti Y. Physiological and biochemical responses of young olive trees (Olea europaea L.) to water stress during flowering. Arch Biol Sci. 2019;71(1):123-32.
PDA-Taza. Report of the Provincial Direction of Agriculture, Taza, Morocco; 2015. p. 1-5.
Lahrouni M, El Abbassi A, El Messoussi S. Olive tree growth dynamics under semi-arid conditions of AlHaouz region in Morocco. J Mater Environ Sci. 2015;6:2428-36.
Bongi G, Mencuccini M, Fontanazza G. Photosynthesis of olive leaves: effect of light, flux density, leaf age, temperature, peltates, and H2O vapour pressure deficit on gas exchange. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1987;112:143-8.
Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Bosabalidis AM. Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environ Exp Bot. 1999;42:113-20.
Bacelar EA, Santos DL, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves BC, Ferreira HF, Correia CM. Immediate responses and adaptative strategies of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Sci. 2006;170:596-605.
Lo Bianco R, Scalisi A. Water relations and carbohydrate partitioning of four greenhouse-grown olive genotypes under long-term drought. Trees. 2017;3:717-27.
Trentacoste ER, Contreras-Zanessi O, Beyá-Marshall V, Puertas CM. Genotypic variation of physiological and morphological traits of seven olive cultivars under sustained and cyclic drought in Mendoza, Argentina. Agric Water Manage. 2018;196:48-56.
Xiloyannis C, Pezzarosa B, Jorba J, Angelini P. Effects of soil water content on gas exchange in olive trees. Adv Hortic Sci. 1988;2:58-63.
Fernández JE, Moreno F, Cabrera F, Arrue JL, Martín-Aranda J. Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant Soil. 1991;133:239-51.
Dichio B, Nuzzo V, Xiloyannis C, Celano G, Angelopoulos K. Drought stress-induced variation of pressure-volume relationships in Olea europaea L. cv. ‘‘Coratina’’. Acta Hort. 1997;449:401-9.
Giorio P, Sorrentino G, d’Andria R. Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in field-grown olive trees under water deficit. Environ Exp Bot. 1999;42:95-104.
Fernández JE, Moreno F, Girón IF, Blázquez OM. Stomatal control of water use in olive tree leaves. Plant Soil. 1997;190:179-92.
Bacelar EA, Santos DL, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Lopes JI, Gonçalves BC, Ferreira TC, Correia CM. Physiological behaviour, oxidative damage and antioxidative protection of olive trees grown under different irrigation regimes. Plant Soil. 2007;292:1-12.
Moriana A, Villalobos FJ, Ferreres E. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves to water deficits. Plant Cell Environ. 2002;25:395-405.
Ben Abdallah M, Trupiano D, Polzella A, De Zio E, Sassi M, Scaloni A, Zarrouk M, Ben Youssef N, Scippa GS. Unraveling physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Chétoui) tolerance to drought and salt stresses. J Plant Physiol. 2018;220:83-95.
Sofo A, Dichioa B, Xiloyannisa C, Masia A. Lipoxygenase activity and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of olive trees in response to drought stress. Physiol Plant. 2004;121:58-65.
Ashraf M, Foolad MR. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot. 2007;59:206-16.
Ain-Lhout F, Zunzunegui FA, Diaz Barradas MC, Tirado R, Clavijio A, Garcia Novo F. Comparison of proline accumulation in two Mediterranean shrubs subjected to natural and experimental water deficit. Plant Soil. 2001;230:175-83.
Boughalleb F, Hajlaoui H. Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv Zalmati and Chemlali). Acta Physiol Plant. 2011;33:53-65.
Guerfel M, Ouni Y, Boujnah D, Zarrouk M. Photosynthesis parameters and activities of enzymes of oxidative stress in two young ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’ olive trees under water deficit. Photosynthetica 2009;47:340-6.
Elhani S, Rharrabti Y, García del Moral LF, Roca LF. Evolution of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in durum wheat as affected by air temperature. CIHEAM-Opt Med. 2000;40:275-7.
Ben Abdallah M, Methenni K, Polzella A, Nouairi I, Zarrouk M, Ben Youssef N. Drought priming improves subsequent more severe drought in a drought-sensitive cultivar of olive cv. Chétoui. Sci Hort. 2017;221:47-52.
Sakar EH, El Yamani M, Rharrabti Y. Frost susceptibility of five almond [Prunus dulcis (mill.) D.A. Webb] cultivars grown in north-eastern Morocco as revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence. Int J Fruit Sci. 2017;17:415-22.
Scholander PF, Brandstreet ET, Hemmingsen EA, Hammel HT. Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science. 1965;148:339-46.
Guerfel M, Baccouri O, Boujnah D, Chaïbi W, Zarrouk M. Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Sci Hort. 20009;119:257-63.
Arnon DI. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 1949;24:1-15.
Troll W, Lindsey J. A photometric method for the determination of proline. J Biol Chem.1995; 215:655-60.
Monneveux P, Nemmar M. Contribution à l’étude de la résistance à la sécheresse chez le blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L) et chez le blé dur (Triticum durum DESF). Étude de l’accumulation de la proline au cours du cycle de développement. Agronomie. 1986;6:583-90.
Robyt JF, White BJ. Biochemical technique: theory and practices. 2nd ed. Illinois: Waveland Press; 1987. 407 p.
Alexieva V, Sergiev I, Mapelli S, Karanov E. The effect of drought and ultraviolet radiation on growth and stress markers in pea and wheat. Plant Cell Environ. 2001; 24:1337-44.
Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Kofidis G, Bosabalidis A, Nastou A. Water stress affects leaf anatomy, gas exchange, water relations and growth of two avocado cultivars. Sci Hort. 2002;95:39-50.
Ben Ahmed C, Ben Rouina B, Sensoy S, Boukhris M, Ben Abdallah F. Changes in gas exchange, proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environ Exp Bot. 2009:67:345-52.
Dichio B, Margiotta G, Xiloyannis C, Bufo SA, Sofo A, Cataldi TRI. Changes in water status and osmolyte contents in leaves and roots of olive plants (Olea europaea L.) subjected to water deficit. Trees. 2009;23:247-56.
Pierantozzi P, Torres M, Bodoira R, Maestri D. Water relations, biochemical - physiological and yield responses of olive trees (Olea europaea L. cvs. Arbequina and Manzanilla) under drought stress during the pre-flowering and flowering period. Agric Water Manage. 2013;125:13-25.
Boussadia O, Bchir A, Steppe K, Van Labeke MC, Lemeur R, Braham M. Active and passive osmotic adjustment in olive tree leaves during drought stress. Eur Sci J. 2013;9:423-39.
Younis ME, El-Shahaby OA, Abo-Hamed SA, Ibrahim AH. Effects of water stress on growth, pigments and 14CO2 assimilation in three sorghum cultivars. Agron Crop Sci. 2000;185:73-82.
Boussadia A, Ben Mariem F, Mechri B, Boussetta W, Braham M, Ben El Hadj S. Response to drought of two olive tree cultivars (cv Koroneki and Meski). Sci Hort. 2008;116:388-93.
Tognetti R, d’Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G. The effect of deficit irrigation on crop yield and vegetative development of Olea europaea L. (cvs. Frantoio and Leccino). Eur J Agron. 2006;25:356-64.
Lawlor DW. Limitation to photosynthesis in water-stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Ann Bot. 2002;89:871-85.
Ben-Rouina B, Ben-Ahmed C, Athar HUR, Boukhriss M. Water relations, proline accumulation and photosynthetic activity in olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv. “Chemlali”) in response to salt stress. Pak J Bot. 2009;38:1397-406.
Sofo A, Manfreda S, Fiorentino M, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci. 2008;12:293-301.
Chaves MM. Effects of water deficits on carbon assimilation. J Exp Bot. 1991;42:1-16.
Jones HG. Plants and microclimate. A quantitative approach to environmental plant physiology. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992. p. 428
Lu C, Zhang J. Effect of water stress on photosystem II photochemistry and its thermostability in wheat plants. J Exp Bot. 1999;50:1199-206.
Khan NA, Syeed S, Masood A, Nazar R, Iqbal N. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mung bean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. Int J Plant Biol. 2020;1:e1.
Moriana A, Pérez-López D, Prieto MH, Ramírez-Santa-Pau M, Pérez-Rodríguez JM. Midday stem water potential as a useful tool for estimating irrigation requirements in olive trees. Agric Water Manage. 2012;112:43-54.
Ashraf M, Harris PJC. Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci. 2004;166:3-16.
Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA. Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron sustainable dev. 2009;29:185-212.
Boughalleb F, Mhamdi M. Possible involvement of proline and the antioxidant defense systems in the drought tolerance of three olive cultivars grown under increasing water deficit regimes. Agric J. 2011;6:378-91.
Ben Hassine A, Ghanem ME, Bouzid S, Lutts S. An inland and a coastal population of the Mediterranean xero-halophyte species Atriplex halimus L. differ in their ability to accumulate proline and glycinebetaine in response to salinity and water stress? J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1315-26.
Van den Ende W, Valluru R. Sucrose, sucrosyl oligosaccharides and oxidative stress: scavenging and salvaging? J Exp Bot. 2009;60:9-18.
Smirnoff N. The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol. 1993;125:27-58.
Brito G, Costa A, Fonseca HMAC, Santos CVV. Response of Olea europaea ssp. maderensis in vitro shoots exposed to osmotic stress. Sci Hort. 2003;97:411-7.
Büssis D, Kauder F, Heineke D. Acclimation of potato plants to polyethylene glycol-induced water deficit. I. Photosynthesis and metabolism. J Exp Bot. 1998;49:1349-60.
Demming-Adams B. Carotenoids and photoprotection in plants. A role for Xanthophyll zeaxanthin. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1990;1020:1-24.
Bosabalidis AM, Kofidis G. Comparative effects of drought stress on leaf anatomy of two olive cultivars. Plant Sci. 2002;163:375-9.
Bacelar EA, Correia CM, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves BC, Lopes JI, Torres-Pereira JM. Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions. Tree Physiol. 2004;24:233-9.
How to Cite
Authors grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.