Recasting as a booster of Ag-Pd alloy cytotoxicity: induction of cell senescence prior to mass cell death


  • Aleksandra D. Čairović Clinic for Prosthodontics, University of Belgrade, School of Dental Medicine, Rankeova 4, 11 000 Belgrade
  • Dragan M. Stanimirović Department for Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Belgrade, School of Dental Medicine, dr Subotića 4, 11 000 Belgrade
  • Tamara T. Krajnović Department of Immunology, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11 060 Belgrade
  • Biljana P. Dojčinović Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11 000 Belgrade
  • Vesna M. Maksimović “Vinča” Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 351 Belgrade
  • Ivana Lj. Cvijović-Alagić “Vinča” Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 351 Belgrade


dental alloys, cytotoxicity, necrosis, recasting, reactive oxygen species


Paper description:

  • The toxicity of dental alloys in terms of continuous and prolonged exposure of cells in the oral cavity to certain materials is extensively documented.
  • Our results showed that the cytotoxic effect of the Ag-Pd alloy against L929 cells was mediated by metal ion release in culture medium and provoked by recasting. Induction of senescence and cell death are basic mechanisms of alloy toxicity and are in correlation with casting number and endogenous ROS/RNS production.
  • The data presented here underline the risk of Ag-Pd alloy reuse which compromises its biocompatibility, provoking complications observed in dental practice.

Abstract: The biological quality and chemical composition of alloys used in dental practice changes during heat treatment. Often the residues of the previous cast are not disposed of but are reused and recycled until consumed. Thus, manufactured dental restorations have modified biological quality and chemical composition, and compromised biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of repeated casting on the cytotoxicity of the silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) alloy. Our results showed that repeated casting of the Ag-Pd dental alloy affected its biocompatibility by promoting toxicity against transformed fibroblasts in a contact-independent manner. A strong decrease in cell proliferation, induction of senescence and massive cell death were observed in cultures exposed only to a medium previously incubated with dental alloy samples. The obtained data indicated that toxicity mediated by the accumulation of the Ag, Pd, Cu and Zn cations released from the Ag-Pd material was enhanced by recasting. The induction of cell senescence and subsequent apoptotic and necrotic death was accompanied by amplified intracellular production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, suggesting their involvement in the cell destruction process. Therefore, compromised biocompatibility after recasting with the Ag-Pd alloy can be the cause of serious local cell destruction, as observed in clinical practice.

Received: March 5, 2019; Revised: March 15, 2019; Accepted: March 21, 2019; Published online: March 25, 2019

How to cite this article: Čairović AD, Stanimirović DM, Krajnović TT, Dojčinović BP, Maksimović VM, Cvijović-Alagić ILj. Recasting as a booster of Ag-Pd alloy cytotoxicity: Induction of cell senescence prior to mass cell death. Arch Biol Sci. 2019;71(2):347-56.


Download data is not yet available.


Cortizo MC, De Mele MF, Cortizo AM. Metallic dental material biocompatibility in osteoblastlike cells: correlation with metal ion release. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004;100(2):151-68.

Wataha JC, Nelson SK, Lockwood PE. Elemental release from dental casting alloys into biological media with and without protein. Dent Mater. 2001;17(5):409-14.

Zhao LB, Si J, Wei Y, Li SR, Jiang YJ, Zhou R, Liu B, Zhang H. Toxicity of porcelain-fused-to-metal substrate to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae. Life Sci. 2018;203:66-71.

Čairović A, Maksimović V, Radović K, Đurišić S. The effect of recasting on biological properties of Ni-Cr dental alloy. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2016;144(11-12):574-9.

Vaillant-Corroy A-S, Corne P, De March P, Fleutot S, Cleymand F. Influence of recasting on the quality of dental alloys: A systematic review. J Prosth Dent. 2015;114(2):205-11.

Čairović A, Đorđević I, Bulatović M, Mojić M, Momčilović M, Stošić-Grujičić S, Maksimović V, Maksimović-Ivanić D, Mijatović S, Stamenković D. In vitro assessment of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr dental alloys upon recasting: Cellular compatibility. Dig J Nanomater Bios. 2013;8(2):877-86.

Zhang CY, Cheng H, Lin DH, Zheng M, Ozcan M, Zhao W, Yu H. Effects of recasting on the biocompatibility of a Ni-Cr alloy. Chin J Dent Res 2012;15(2):105-13.

Imirzalioglu P, Alaaddinoglu E, Yilmaz Z, Oduncuoglu B, Yilmaz B, Rosenstiel S. Influence of recasting different types of dental alloys on gingival fibroblast cytotoxicity. J Prosth Dent. 2012;107(1):24-33.

Shen QY, Li GQ, Zhong Q. Biological performance of Ni-Cr porcelain alloy. CRTER. 2009;13(38):7555-8.

Al-Hiyasat, AS, Darmani, H. The effects of recasting on the cytotoxicity of base metal alloys. J Prosth Dent. 2005;93(2):158-63.

Venclikova Z, Benada O, Bartova J, Joska L, Mrklas L. Metallic pigmentation of human tooth and gingiva: morphological and immunological aspects. Dent Mater J. 2007;26(1):96-104.

Ristić Lj, Miljković Ž, Ilić S, Đurić T. Prebojenost gingive u prisustvu fiksnih zubnih nadoknada.Vojnosanit Pregl. 2005;62(5):371-6.

Ristić Lj, Ilić S, Živanović A. Influence of metal-ceramic fixed dental restorations on the occurence of discoloration of gingiva. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2006;63(4):409-13.

Garcia-Contreras R, Sakagami H, Nakajima H, Shimada J. Type of cell death induced by various metal cations in cultured human gingival fibroblasts. In vivo. 2010;24(4):513-7.

Yamazaki T, Zamayaki A, Hibino Y, Chowdhury SA, Yakote Y, Kanda Y, Sakagami H, Nakajima H, Shimada J. Biological impact of contact with metals on the cells. In vivo. 2006;20(5):605-11.

Horasawa N, Marek M. The effect of recasting on corrosion of a silver-palladium alloy. Dent Mater. 2004;20(4):352-7.

Harhaji Lj, Mijatović S, Maksimović-Ivanić D, Stojanović I, Momcilović M, Maksimović V, Tufegdzić S, Marjanović Z, Mostarica-Stojković M, Vucinić Z, Stosić-Grujicić S. Anti-tumor effect of Coriolusversicolor methanol extract against mouse B16 melanoma cells: in vitro and in vivo study. Food ChemToxicol. 2008;46(5):1825-33.

Maksimović-Ivanić D, Bulatović M, Edeler D, Bensing C, Golić I, Korać A, Kaluđerović GN, MijatovićS. The interaction between SBA-15 derivative loaded with Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH and human melanoma A375 cell line: uptake and stem phenotype loss. J BiolInorg Chem. 2019; 24(2):223-34.

Paskas S, Mazzon E, Basile MS, Cavalli E, Al-Abed Y, He M, Rakocevic S, Nicoletti F, Mijatovic S, Maksimovic-IvanicD.Lopinavir-NO. A nitric oxide-releasing HIV protease inhibitor, suppresses the growth of melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Invest New Drugs. 2019;DOI:10.1007/s10637-019-00733-3.

Schmalz G, Garhammer P. Biological interactions of dental cast alloys with oral tissues. Dent Mater. 2002;18(5):396-406.

Jia XY, Wang QA, Meng H, Sun H, Zhan DS. Effects of different dental alloys on cytotoxic and apoptosis related genes expression in L929 cells. J Hard Tissue Biol. 2010;19(2):95-100.

Maksimović-Ivanić D, Mijatović S, Miljković Đ, Harhaji-Trajković Lj, Timotijević G, Mojić M, Dabideen D, Fan Cheng K, McCubrey JA, Mangano K, Al-Abed Y, Libra M, Garotta G, Stošić-Grujičić S, Nicoletti F. The antitumor properties of a nontoxic, nitric oxide–modified version of saquinavir are independent of Akt. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8(5):1169-78.

Wataha JC. Biocompatibility of dental casting alloys: a review. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;83(2):223-34.

Williams DF. On the mechanisms of biocompatibility. Biomaterials. 2008;29(20):2941-53.

Wataha JC, Messer RL. Casting alloys. Dent Clin North Am. 2004;48(2):499-512.

Aberer W, Holub H, Strohal R, Slavicek R. Palladium in dental alloys - the dermatologists’ responsibility to warn? Contact Dermatitis. 1993;28(3):163-5.

Mareci D, Sutiman D, Cailean A, Bolat G. Comparative corrosion study of Ag-Pd and Co-Cr alloys used in dental applications. Bull Mater Sci. 2010;33 (4):491-500.

Colavitti R, Finkel T. Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cellular senescence. IUBMB Life. 2005;57(4-5):277-81.

Hornez JC, Lefevre D, Joly D, Hildebrand HF. Multiple parameter cytotoxicity index on dental alloys and pure metals. Biomol Eng. 2002;19(2-6):103-17.

Wataha JC, Lockwood PE, Nelson SK, Bouillaguet S. Long-term cytotoxicity of dental casting alloys. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12(3):242-8.

Wataha JC, Malcolm CT, Hanks CT. Correlation between cytotoxicity and the elements released by dental casting alloys. Int J Prosthodont. 1995;8(1):9-14.




How to Cite

Čairović AD, Stanimirović DM, Krajnović TT, Dojčinović BP, Maksimović VM, Cvijović-Alagić IL. Recasting as a booster of Ag-Pd alloy cytotoxicity: induction of cell senescence prior to mass cell death. Arch Biol Sci [Internet]. 2019Jun.4 [cited 2022Jan.19];71(2):347-56. Available from: