Genetic diversity among Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum isolates based on ISSR markers
AbstractTo characterize the isolates of F. graminearum and F. culmorum fungi from Turkey and Iran, we performed ISSR analysis with 18 non-anchored and 23 anchored (including ten novel) primers. Amplification product sizes were 0.2-3.5 kb. In total, 405 bands were scored, 24 of which (5.92%) were polymorphic. The similarities among F. graminearum isolates were calculated as 62.3-99%, and among F. culmorum as 65.7-94.3%. Moderate genetic variation at intra- and inter-specific levels was determined, and the average intraspecific genetic diversity values were 80.65% for F. graminearum, and 80% for F. culmorum. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into two main clades. Group I consisted of F. culmorum isolates from Turkey that produced DON mycotoxin. Group II contained all F. graminearum isolates that were deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) chemotypes from Turkey and Iran. Both groups I and II were divided into two subgroups including their divisions. Phenons in group II included isolates distributed in the same geographic region. ISSR markers clustered isolates within a definite order according to their species. Isolates from the same agro-ecological locations were also kept together in subdivisions. The novel ISSR markers developed for the first time in this study contribute to differentiating between Fusarium isolates according to their species and geographic regions.
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