Effects of green synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles from extracts of Citrullus colocynthis on body weight, plasma atherogenic index, and histology of liver and stomach of high-fat-diet-fed rats





Calcium oxide nanoparticles, Citrullus colocynthis, weight-lowering, atherogenic index of plasma, gastric mucosa histology


Paper description:

  • Citrullus colocynthis exhibits weight-lowering and antilipidemic capabilities. Green synthesis of nanoparticles has great potential for drug delivery.
  • Green synthesis of CaO nanoparticles was performed using Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract. Their effect on body weight, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and gastric mucosa was studied in high-fat diet-fed rats.
  • Citrullus colocynthis extract CaO nanoparticles decreased the body weight, improved cardiovascular health as per the AIP (0.12), showed no ulceration, and had fewer toxic effects on the histology and biochemical parameters of the liver.
  • CaO nanoparticles improve the weight-lowering and antilipidemic potential of colocynthis.

Abstract: Citrullus colocynthis has been used to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nanoparticles, due to their nano size, phytochemical adsorption, improved systemic absorption and high bioavailability, can potentially improve the bioactivity of C. colocynthis. The present research focused on studying the effects of green synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) from C. colocynthis fruit extracts (CCFE) on the body weight, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and the histopathology of male albino rats. Ethyl‐α-d-glucopyranoside was the major constituent of CCFE, along with phenols and fatty acids. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CCFE were 203.52 and 173.56 mg/g, respectively. Male albino rats (n=36) were divided into six groups (six rats per each group). Rats in different groups received a normal diet, a high‐fat diet (HFD), HFD with lovastatin (10 mg/kg), HFD with CCFE (20 mg/kg), HFD with CaONPs (2 mg/kg), and HFD with a synergistic solution of CCFE (10 mg/kg) and CaONPs (1 mg/kg), respectively. When CaONPs were administered in combination with CCFE, significant weight-lowering activity (36.36%), improved cardiovascular health as per AIP (0.12±0.01b), and fewer disturbances in liver function parameters were observed. Histological analysis at the end of the experiment showed that CaONPs were not toxic to the gastric mucosa and were slightly toxic to hepatocytes. It can be concluded that CaONPs synthesized from CCFE can be a potent weight-lowering and antilipidemic agent with fewer side effects.


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How to Cite

Mazher M, Ishtiaq M, Mazhar M. Effects of green synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles from extracts of Citrullus colocynthis on body weight, plasma atherogenic index, and histology of liver and stomach of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Arch Biol Sci [Internet]. 2023Oct.26 [cited 2024Feb.29];75(3):299-308. Available from: https://www.serbiosoc.org.rs/arch/index.php/abs/article/view/8752