Characterization and expression analysis of growth regulating factor (GRF) family genes in cucumber



cucumber, growth regulating factor (GRF), gene family, expression analysis, abiotic stress


Paper description:

  • The growth regulating factor (GRF) family genes are plant-specific transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and hormone signaling.
  • Bioinformatic analyses of the GRF gene family in cucumber were performed and the expression profiles of CsGRF genes under abiotic stress were assessed.
  • This work lays a foundation for better understanding the roles of CsGRF genes in response to environmental stresses and may help to reveal their functions in different developmental processes of cucumber.

Abstract: The growth regulating factor (GRF) family is a conserved class of transcription factors involved in various biological processes in plants. However, there have been only a few studies of the GRF family genes in cucumber, Cucumis sativus (Cs). In this study, we identified and characterized 8 CsGRF genes in cucumber. Two highly conserved domains, QLQ and WRC, were identified to be present in all CsGRF proteins. In addition, three less conserved domains (FFD, TQL, and GGPL) were also detected in some CsGRF members. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the GRF genes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato, rice and maize could be classified into 10 groups, and CsGRFs were clustered closer with the GRF genes from dicots (Arabidopsis and tomato) than with those from monocots (rice and maize). Promoter analysis revealed that the CsGRF genes were involved in cucumber growth and development as well as in responses to various hormones and stresses. Transcriptome data showed that the CsGRF genes have distinct expression patterns in different tissues, especially in ovaries and leaves. Expression profiling analysis indicated that all CsGRF genes were responsive to salt and drought stress treatments. These results demonstrate that the cucumber GRF gene family may function in organ development and plant stress responses.

Received: April 14, 2018; Revised: May 21, 2018; Accepted: May 22, 2018; Published online: May 31, 2018

How to cite this article: Zhou Y, Ge L, Li G, Jiang L, Yang Y. Characterization and expression analysis of growth regulating factor (GRF) family genes in cucumber. Arch Biol Sci. 2018;70(4):629-37.


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How to Cite

Zhou Y, Ge L, Li G, Jiang L, Yang Y. Characterization and expression analysis of growth regulating factor (GRF) family genes in cucumber. Arch Biol Sci [Internet]. 2018Dec.4 [cited 2023Nov.28];70(4):629-37. Available from: