Improved rooting capacity and hardening efficiency of carob (<i>Ceratonia siliqua </i>L.) cuttings using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Authors

  • Abdellatif Essahibi Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh
  • Laila Benhiba Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh
  • Fouad Mohamed Oussouf Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh
  • Mohamed Ait Babram Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh
  • Cherki Ghoulam Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh
  • Ahmed Qaddoury Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh

Keywords:

Ceratonia siliqua L, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, cuttings, rooting, hardening

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken to improve the performance of carob cuttings in terms of adventitious roots formation and hardening using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Softwood cuttings were treated with 5000 mg L-1 of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and kept non-inoculated (Non-AM) or inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae (Fmo) alone or combined with Rhizophagus fasciculatus (Fmo+Rfa) or R. intraradices (Fmo+Rin) or both (Fmo+Rfa+Rin) and then maintained under mist conditions. After two months, rooted cuttings were transplanted on sterilized substrate and transferred to a hardening greenhouse for five months. Obtained results showed that inoculation of the rooting substrate with AMF substantially improved the percentage of rooted cuttings and the number of roots per cutting. The highest rooting (63.33%) and number of roots per cutting (11.67) were recorded in the presence of the complex of the three AMF strains (Fmo+Rfa+Rin). Moreover, all mycorrhizal-rooted cuttings survived transplantation and hardening shocks and showed the highest growth and physiological performances. Indeed, in the Fmo-Rfa-Rin-plantlets the gains in plant height and shoot and root dry weights were 95.6%, 55.1% and 76.9% respectively. Furthermore, stomatal conductance, total chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and nutrient concentrations were higher in mycorrhizal plantlets than in non-AM ones. Thus, AMF substantially improved carob cuttings’ performance in terms of rooting capacity and hardening efficiency, thereby increasing the potential of carob propagation by cuttings.

https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS160307100E

Received: March 7, 2016; Revised: May 2, 2016; Accepted: May 31, 2016; Published online: October 17, 2016

How to cite this article: Essahibi A, Benhiba L, Oussouf FM, Babram MA, Ghoulam C, Qaddoury A. Improved rooting capacity and hardening efficiency of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cuttings using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Arch Biol Sci. 2017;69(2):291-8.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Batlle I, Tous J. Carob tree Ceratonia siliqua L: Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; 1997. 93 p.

Makris DP, Kefalas P. Carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Technol Biotech. 2004;42(2):105-8.

Sakcali MS, Ozturk M. Eco-physiological behaviour of some Mediterranean plants as suitable candidates for reclamation of degraded areas. J Arid Environ. 2004;57(2):141-53.

Custodio L, Fernandes E, Escapa AL, Fajardo A, Aligue R, Albericio F, Romano A. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar. J Agr Food Chem. 2011;59(13):7005-12.

Custódio L, Escapa AL, Fernandes E, Fajardo A, Aligué, R, Alberício F, Romano A. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 2011;66(1):78-84.

Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT, Geneve RL. Plant propagation: principles and practices. 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall; 1997. 770 p.

Harley JL, Smith SE. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. New York: Academic Press; 1983. 483 p.

Al-Karaki G, McMichael B, Zah J. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza. 2004;14(4):263-9.

Faghire M, Baslam M, Samri S, Meddich A, Goicoechea N, Qaddoury A. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on nutrient status, water relations and growth of date palm seedlings under water stress. Acta Hortic. 2010;882:833-8.

Estrada B, Aroca R, Barea JM, Ruiz-Lozano JM. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from a saline habitat improved maize antioxidant systems and plant tolerance to salinity. Plant Sci. 2013;201:42-51.

Benhiba L, Fouad MO, Essahibi A, Ghoulam C, Qaddoury A. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis enhanced growth and antioxidant metabolism in date palm subjected to long-term drought. Trees. 2015;29(6):1725-33.

Abbaspour H, Saeidi-Sar S, Afshari H, Abdel-Wahhab MA. Tolerance of mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169(7):704-9.

Baslam M, Qaddoury A, Goicoechea N. Role of native and exotic mycorrhizal symbiosis to develop morphological, physiological and biochemical responses coping with water drought of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera. Trees. 2014;28(1):161-72.

Fouad MO, Essahibi A, Benhiba A, Qaddoury A. Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the protection of olive plants against oxidative stress induced by drought. Span J Agric Res. 2014;12(3):763-71.

Scagel CF. Cultivar specific effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the rooting of miniature rose cuttings. J Environ Hortic. 2001;19(1):15-20.

Scagel CF. Enhanced rooting of kinnikinnick cuttings using mycorrhizal fungi in rooting substrate. Hort Technol. 2004;14(3):355-63.

Fatemeh B, Zaynab M. Enhanced rooting of leaf bud cuttings of Schefflera arboricola using mycorrhizal fungi. Annu Res Rev Biol. 2014;4(18):2892-900.

Fouad MO. Determinants of performances of olive cuttings to overcome the acclimatization and transplantation shocks: role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. [dissertation]. [Marrakech]: University Cadi Ayyad of Marrakech. 2015. 157 p.

Carpio LA, Davies FT, Arnold MA. Effect of Commercial Mycorrhiza on Growth, Survivability, and Subsequent Landscape Performance of Selected Container Grown Ornamental Nursery Crops. In: James BL, editor. Proceeding of the 48th Annual Southern Nursery Association (SNA) Research Conference; Atlanta: Southern Nursery Association Ins.; 2003. p. 45-8. (SNA Research Conference Proceedings; vol. 48)

Scagel CF, Reddy K, Armstrong JM. Mycorrhizal fungi in rooting substrate influences the quantity and quality of roots on stem cuttings of Hick’s yew. Hort Technology. 2003;13(1):62-6.

Binet MN, Lemoine MC, Martin C, Chambon C, Gianinazzi S. Micropropagation of Olive (Olea europaea L.) and Application of Mycorrhiza to Improve Plantlet Establishment. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 2007;43(5):473-8.

Singh NV, Singh SK, Singh AK, Meshram DT, Suroshe SS, Mishra DC. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) induced hardening of micropropagated pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) plantlets. Sci Hortic. 2012;136:122-7.

Yadav K, Aggarwal A, Singh N. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) induced acclimatization, growth enhancement and colchicine content of micropropagated Gloriosa superba L. plantlets. Ind Cro Prod. 2013;45:88-93.

Bompadre MJ, Pérgola M, Fernández Bidondo L, Colombo RP, Silvani VA, Pardo AG, Ocampo JA, Godeas AM. Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions. Sci World J. 2014;2014:ID378950.

Martin MLS, Azcon R, Barea JM, Soriano AP, Goldaracena IM, Piedra AP. Reduction of the juvenile period of new olive plantations through the early application of mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Sci. 2006;171(1):52-8.

Phillips JM, Hayman DS. Improve procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Br Mycol Soc. 1970;55(1):158-61.

Giovannetti M, Mosse B. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytol. 1980;84(3):489-500.

Kooten O, Snel JF. The use of chlorophyll fluorescence nomenclature in plant stress physiology. Photosynth Res. 1990;25(3):147-50.

Arnon DI. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris L. Plant Physiol. 1949;24(1):1-15.

AFNOR. Qualité de l’eau-dosage des matières en suspension–méthode par centrifugation. Paris. Association française de normalisation; 1997.

Brown JD, Lilleland O. Rapid determination of potassium and sodium in plant material and soil extracts by Flame photometry. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1946;48:341-46.

Rubio R, Borie F, Schalchli C, Castillo C, Azcón R. Occurrence and effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in wheat as affected by the source and amount of phosphorus fertilizer and fungal inoculation. Appl Soil Ecol. 2003;23(3):245-55.

Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ, Torabi H. Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem. 2007;39(8):2014-26.

Mousa AAK. Rooting response of ‘Nabali’ and ‘Improved Nabali’ olive cuttings to indole butyric acid concentration and collection season. Pak J Biol Sci. 2003;6(24):2040-3.

Qaddoury A, Amssa M. Action de l'acide indole butyrique sur l'enracinement des jeunes rejets de palmier dattier. Acta Bot Gallica. 2003;150(2):213-22.

Qaddoury A, Amssa M. Effect of exogenous indole butyric acid on root formation and peroxidase and indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activities and phenolic contents in date Palm offshoots. Bot Bull Acad Sin. 2004;45:127-31.

Krisantini S, Johnston M, Williams RR, Beveridge C. Adventitious root formation in Grevillea (Proteaceae), an Australian native species. Sci Hortic. 2006;107(2):171-5.

Cristofori V, Rouphael Y, Rugini E. Collection time, cutting age, IBA and putrescine effects on root formation in Corylus avellana L. cuttings. Sci Hortic. 2010;124(2):189-94.

Contessa C, Valentini N, Botta R. Decreasing the concentration of IBA or combination with ethylene inhibitors improve bud retention in semi-hardwood cuttings of hazelnut cultivar ‘Tonda Gentile delle Langhe’. Sci Hortic. 2011;131:103-6.

Husen A, Pal M. Metabolic changes during adventitious root primordium development in Tectona grandis Linn. F. (teak) cuttings as affected by age of donor plants and auxin (IBA and NAA) treatment. New Forest. 2007;33(3):309-23.

Gadkar V, David-Schwartz R, Kunik T, Kapulnik Y. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Factors involved in host recognition. Plant Physiol. 2001;127(4):1493-9.

Tamasloukht MB, Séjalon-Delmas N, Kluever A, Jauneau A, Roux C, Bécard G, Franken P. Root Factors Induce Mitochondrial-Related Gene Expression and Fungal Respiration during the Developmental switch from Asymbiosis to Presymbiosis in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora rosea. Plant Physiol. 2003;131(3):1468-78.

Larose G, Chênevert R, Moutoglis P, Gagné S, Piché Y, Vierheilig H. Flavonoid levels in roots of Medicago sativa are modulated by the developmental stage of the symbiosis and the root colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. J Plant Physiol. 2002;159(12):1329-39.

Sánchez-Blanco MJ, Ferrández T, Morales MA, Morte A, Alarcón JJ. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions. J Plant Physiol. 2004;161(6):675-82.

Zhu XC, Song FB, Liu SQ, Liu TD. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on photosynthesis and water status of maize under high temperature stress. Plant Soil. 2011;346(1-2):189-99.

Black KG, Mitchell DT, Osborne BA. Effect of mycorrhizal‐enhanced leaf phosphate status on carbon partitioning, translocation and photosynthesis in cucumber. Plant Cell Environment. 2000;23(8):797-809.

Marschner, H. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1995. 645 p.

Hu Y, Schmidhalter U. Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 2005;168(4):541-9.

Blazich FA. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting: Adventitious root formation in cuttings. In: Davis TD, Haissig BE, Sankhla N, editors. Advances in plant sciences series. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press; 1988. p. 61-69.

Bellamine J, Penel C, Greppin H, Gaspar T. Confirmation of the role of auxin and calcium in the late phases of adventitious root formation. Plant Growth Regul. 1998;26(3):191-4.

Augé RM. Arbuscular mycorrhizae and soil/plant water relations. Can J Soil Sci. 2004;84(8):373-81.

Goussous SJ, Mohammad MJ. Comparative effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizae and N and P fertilizers on growth and nutrient uptake of onions. Int J Agric Biol. 2009;11(4):463-7.

Gholamhoseini M, Ghalavand A, Dolatabadian A, Jamshidi E, Khodaei-Joghan A. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and irrigation water productivity of sunflowers grown under drought stress. Agr Water Manage. 2013;117:106-14.

Wu QS, Xia RX. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. J Plant Physiol. 2006;163(4):417-25.

Van der Heijden MGA, Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Moutoglis P, Streitwolf-Engel R, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature. 1998;396(6706):69-72.

Downloads

Published

2017-05-25

How to Cite

1.
Essahibi A, Benhiba L, Oussouf FM, Babram MA, Ghoulam C, Qaddoury A. Improved rooting capacity and hardening efficiency of carob (&lt;i&gt;Ceratonia siliqua &lt;/i&gt;L.) cuttings using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Arch Biol Sci [Internet]. 2017May25 [cited 2022Jul.5];69(2):291-8. Available from: https://www.serbiosoc.org.rs/arch/index.php/abs/article/view/298

Issue

Section

Articles