Changes in mouse thymus after exposure to tube-restraint stress
Keywords:immobilization, physical restraint, thymus, proliferation, apoptosis
- The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ sensitive to various types of stress that induce its atrophy.
- The effect of repeated tube-restraint stress 2 h daily for 10 or 20 consecutive days was studied on the weight, proliferation and apoptosis of the thymus in mice.
- A significant reduction in thymus weight accompanied by decreased cellularity and pronounced atrophy of its cortical part was observed. These changes were the same regardless of whether the stress lasted 10 or 20 days.
- These findings provide a more comprehensive view of repeated tube-restraint, with special emphasis on its duration, on stress-induced thymus atrophy.
Abstract: The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ involved in the regulation of the immune and endocrine systems. It is particularly sensitive to various types of stress, which induce its atrophy. This study deals with the effect of repeated restraint stress on the weight, proliferation and apoptosis of the thymus in mice. During restraint, the animals were placed in 50-mL conical plastic tubes for 2 h every day for either 10 or 20 consecutive days. A significant reduction in thymus weight along with decreased cellularity and pronounced atrophy of the cortical part of the thymus was observed in animals exposed to repeated tube-restraint stress for 10 and 20 consecutive days. The observed changes in the thymus were the same, regardless of the number of days of exposure to stress. These findings provide a more comprehensive view of repeated tube-restraint, with special emphasis on its duration on stress-induced thymus atrophy. The presented findings could serve as a basis for further studies aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the adaptive response of the thymus after repeated exposure to stress.
Received: July 16, 2019; Revised: August 27, 2019; Accepted: September 10, 2019; Published online: September 13, 2019
How to cite this article: Drljača J, Vejnović AT, Miljković DM, Popović MJ, Rakić DB, Sekulić SR, Čapo IĐ, Petković BB. Changes in mouse thymus after exposure to tube-restraint stress. Arch Biol Sci. 2020;72(1):5-11.
Bellavance MA, Rivest S. The HPA - Immune axis and the immunomodulatory actions of glucocorticoids in the brain. Front Immunol. 2014;5:136.
Yan F, Mo X, Liu J, Ye S, Zeng X, Chen D. Thymic function in the regulation of T cells, and molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of cytokines and stress signaling. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16(5):7175-84.
Bjelaković G, Stojanovic I, Jevtovic-Stoimenov T, Pavlović D, Kocić G, Kamenov B, Saranac L, Nikolić J, Bjelaković B, Sokolović D, Basić J. Thymus as a target tissue of glucocorticoid action: what are the consequences of glucocorticoids thymectomy? J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20(2):99-125.
Marchetti MC, Di Marco B, Cifone G, Migliorati G, Riccardi C. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of thymocytes: role of glucocorticoid receptor-associated Src kinase and caspase-8 activation. Blood. 2003;101(2):585-93.
Pérez-Mera ML, Guerra-Pestonit B, Rey-Méndez M. Thymic response of C57BL/6 mice to three different stressors. Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía). 1993;4:173-7.
Kostic TS, Stojkov NJ, Janjic MM, Maric D, Andric SA. The adaptive response of adult rat Leydig cells to repeated immobilization stress: the role of protein kinase A and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Stress. 2008;11(5):370-80.
Kolesnikova LI, Kolesnikov SI, Korytov LI, Suslikova MI, Darenskaya MA, Grebenkina LA, Kolesnikova LR. Oxidative stress as a mechanisms of reduced glucose absorption under conditions of immobilization stress. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017;164(2):132-5.
Sheridan J, Feng N, Bonneau R, Allen C, Huneycutt B, Glaser R. Restraint stress differentially affects anti-viral cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. J Neuroimmunol. 1991;31(3):245-55.
Chmielarz P, Kreiner G, Kusmierczyk J, Kowalska M, Roman A, Tota K, Nalepa I. Depressive-like immobility behavior and genotype × stress interactions in male mice of selected strains. Stress. 2016;19(2):206-13.
Kim KS, Han PL. Optimization of chronic stress paradigms using anxiety- and depression-like behavioral parameters. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83(3):497-507.
Rabasa C, Dickson S. Impact of stress on metabolism and energy balance. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 2016;9:71-7.
Mehfooz A, Wei Q, Zheng K, Fadlalla MB, Maltasic G, Shi F. Protective roles of Rutin against restraint stress on spermatogenesis in testes of adult mice. Tissue Cell. 2018;50:133-43.
Barsoum CS, Raafat MH, Mekawy MA, El Shawarby AM. The possible protective role of ghrelin on acute stress induced thymic atrophy in mice. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study. Cytol Histol Rep. 2019;2:106.
Hu Y, Cardounel A, Gursoy E, Anderson P, Kalimi M. Anti-stress effects of dehydroepiandrosterone: protection of rats against repeated immobilization stress-induced weight loss, glucocorticoid receptor production, and lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59(7):753-62.
Elmore SA. Enhanced histopathology of the thymus. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34(5):656-65.
Ito M, Nishiyama K, Hyodo S, Shigeta S, Ito T. Weight reduction of thymus and depletion of lymphocytes of T-dependent areas in peripheral lymphoid tissues of mice infected with Francisella tularensis. Infect Immune. 1985;49(3):812-8.
Živković I, Rakin A, Petrović-Đergović D, Miljković B, Mićić M. The effects of chronic stress on thymus innervation in the adult rat. Acta Histochemica. 2005;106(6):449-58.
Bomberger CE, Haar JL. Restraint and sound stress reduce the in vitro migration of prethymic stem cells to thymus supernatant. Thymus. 1992;19(2):111-5.
Tarcic N, Levitan G, Ben-Yosef D, Prous D, Ovadia H, Weiss DW. Restraint stress-induced changes in lymphocyte subsets and the expression of adhesion molecules. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1995;2(5):249-57.
Zhu L, Yu T, Qi X, Gao J, Huang K, He X, Luo H, Xu W. Limited link between oxidative stress and ochratoxin A-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model. Toxins. 2016;8(12):373.
Engler H, Stefanski V. Social stress and T cell maturation in male rats: transient and persistent alterations in thymic function. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;28(8):951-69.
Kapitonova Mlu, Kuznetsov SL, Klauchek SV, Mohd Ismail ZI, Ullah M, Fedorova OV. Accidental thymic involution in the growing body under the effect of different types of stressors. Morfologiia. 2006;130(6):56-61.
Missima F, Sforcin JM. Green brazilian propolis action on macrophages and lymphoid organs of chronically stressed mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008;5(1):71-5.
Herman JP. Neural control of chronic stress adaptation. Front Behav Neurosci. 2013;7:61.
Paskitti ME, McCreary BJ, Herman JP. Stress regulation of adrenocorticosteroid receptor gene transcription and mRNA expression in rat hippocampus: time-course analysis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;80(2):142-52.