The relationship between habitat factors and aquatic macrophyte assemblages in the Danube River in Serbia

Dragana Vukov, Miloš Ilić, Mirjana Ćuk, Ružica Igić, Georg A Janauer

Abstract


Our objectives were to offer insight into the characteristics of the physical environment in the River Danube in Serbia; and to show the relationship between selected environmental factors and the composition and abundance of macrophyte species. The macrophyte survey method followed the European Standard EN 14184, applying Kohler’s five-level descriptive scale. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine the variation in aquatic vegetation, and to analyze the effect of environmental variables on the aquatic vegetation, redundancy analysis was used. To build a simpler model with fewer explanatory variables, yet sufficiently explaining species variability, forward selection of environmental variables was done. Our results confirmed that physical environmental factors significantly influence the establishment and structure of macrophyte vegetation, with the level of hydrological connectivity to the main river channel being the most important, followed by the transparency of the water column, sediment texture and water-flow velocity. In order to inspect the individual relation between best-fitted plant species and each of selected environmental variables, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated. We have distinguished plant species with preferences to specific combinations of analyzed factors. Our results provide a background for future, more specific studies on the macrophyte/habitat relationship.

https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS160516116V

Received: May 16, 2016; Accepted: June 21, 2016; Published online: October 31, 2016

How to cite: Vukov D, Ilić M, Ćuk M, Igić R, Janauer GA. The relationship between habitat factors and aquatic macrophyte assemblages in the Danube river in Serbia. Arch Biol Sci. 2017;69(3):427-37.


Keywords


hydrophytes; connectivity; transparency; flow; sediment

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lacoul P, Freedman B. Environmental influences on aquatic plants in freshwater ecosystems. Environ Rev. 2006;14:89-136.

Janauer GA. Is what has been measured of any relevance to the success of the macrophyte in its particular environment? In: Ravera O, editor. Scientific and legal aspects of biological monitoring in freshwater. J Limnol. 2001;Suppl. 1:33-8.

Chambers OA, Prepas EE, Hamilton HR, Bothwell MI. Current velocity and its effect on aquatic macrophytes in flowing waters. Ecol Appl. 1991;1:249-57.

Gessner F. Die ökologische Bedeutung der Strömungsgeschwindigkeit fließender Gewässer und ihre Messung auf kleinstem Raum. Arch Hidrobiol. 1950;34:159-65.

Rath B. 1997. Verbreitung von aquatischen Makrophytenbeständen im Flussbett des früheren Hauptarmes der Donau (Szigetköz, Str.-km 1826–1843). Limnol Ber. 1997;Bd.I(32):227-32.

Barrat-Segretain MH, Amoros C. Influence of flood timing on the recovery of macrophytes in a former river channel. Hydrobiologia. 1995;316:91-101.

Biggs BJF. Hydraulic habitat of plants in streams. Regul River. 1996;12: 131-44.

Bornette G, Amoros C. Aquatic vegetation and hydrology of braided river floodplain. J Veg Sci. 1991;2:497-512.

Bunn SE, Arthington AA. Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environ Manage. 2002;30:492-507.

Dawson FH, Robinson WN. Submerged macrophytes and the hydraulic roughness of lowland chalkstream. Verh Internat Verein Limnol. 1984;22:1944-48.

Franklin P, Dunbar M, Whitehead P. Flow controls on lowland river macrophytes: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2008;400:369-78.

Madsen JD, Chambers PA., James WF, Koch EW, Westlake DF. The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 2001;444:71-84.

Riis T, Biggs BJF. Hydrologic and hydraulic control of macrophyte establishment and performance in streams. Limnol Oceanogr. 2003;48:1488-97.

Riis T, Suren AM, Clausen B, Sand-Jensen K. Vegetation and flow regime in lowland streams. Freshwater Biol. 2008;53:1531-43.

Robach F, Eglin I, Tremolieres M. Species richness of aquatic macrophytes in former channels connected to a river: a comparison between two fluvial hydrosystems differing in their regime and regulation. Global Ecol Biogeogr. 1997;6:267-74.

Sand-Jensen K, Pedersen O. Velocity gradients and turbulence around macrophyte stands in streams. Freshwater Biol. 1999;42:315-28.

Janauer GA, Schmidt-Mumm U, Schmidt B. Aquatic macrophytes and water current velocity in the Danube River. Ecol Eng. 2010;36:1138-45.

Jones JI, Collins AL, Naden PS, Sear DA. The relationship between fine sediment and macrophytes in rivers. River Res Appl. 2012;28:1006-18.

Kohler A, Vollrath H, Beisl E. Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Ökologie der Gefäß-Makrophyten im Fließwassersystem Moosach (Münishner Ebene). Arch Hidrobiol. 1971;69:333-65.

Onaindia M, de Bikuña BG, Benito I. Aquatic plants in relation to environmental factors in Northern Spain. Environ Manage. 1996;47:123-37.

Sabbatini MR, Murphy KJ, Irigoyen JH. Vegetation-environment relationship in irrigation channel systems of southern Argentina. Aquat Bot. 1998;60:119-33.

Baatrup-Pedersen A, Riis T. Macrophyte diversity and composition in relation to substratum characteristics in regulated and unregulated Danish streams. Freshwater Biol. 2009;42:375-85.

Thiébaut T, Muller S. A macrophyte communities sequence as an indicator of eutrophication and acidification levels in weakly mineralised streams in north-eastern France. Hydrobiologia. 1999;410:17-24.

Riis T, Sand-Jensen K. Abundance-range size relationships in stream vegetation in Denmark. Plant Ecol. 2002;161:175-83.

Kohler A, Schneider S. Macrophytes as bioindicators. Arch Hidrobiol. 2003;14 (1-2, Suppl. 147):17-31.

Hrivnák R, Oťaheľová H, Jarolímek I. Diversity of aquatic macrophytes in relation to environmental factors in the Slatina river (Slovakia). Biologia. 2006;61:413-19.

Ot'ahel'ová H, Valachovič M, Hrivnák R. The impact of environmental factors on the distribution pattern of aquatic plants along the Danube River corridor (Slovakia). Limnologica. 2007;37:290-302.

Steffen K, Becker T, Herr W, Leuschner C. Diversity loss in the macrophyte vegetation of northwest German streams and rivers between the 1950s and 2010. Hydrobiologia. 2013;713(1):1-17.

Council Directive 2000/60/EC on Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. OJ L. 2000;327:1-73.

Scheffer M, Hosper SH, Meijer M-L, Moss B, Jeppesen E. Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol Evolut. 1993;8:275-79.

Van Looy K, Meire P, Wasson JG. Including riparian vegetation in the definition of morphologic reference conditions for large rivers: a case study for Europe's Western Plains. Environ Manage. 2008;41:625-39.

Birk S, Van Kouwen L, Willby N. Harmonizing the bioassessment of large rivers in the absence of near-natural reference conditions – a case study of the Danube River. Freshwater Biol. 2012;57:1716-32.

Janauer GA, Dokulil M. Macrophytes and algae in running waters. In: Ziglio G, Siligardi M, Flaim G, editors. Biological monitoring of rivers. New York: Wiley; 2006. p. 89-109.

Schwartz U, Kraier W. Hydromorphology. In: Liška I, Wagner F, Slobodnik J, editors. Joint Danube Survey 2, Final Scientific Report. Vienna: ICPDR; 2008. p. 32-40.

Stevanović V, Šinžar-Sekulić J, Stevanović B. Expansion of the adventive species Paspalum paspalodes (Michx) Schribner, Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch and Cyperus strigosus L. in the Yugoslav part of the Danube reservoir (km 1090-1075). Limnol Reports. 2004;35:99-405.

Vukov D, Boža P, Igić R, Anačkov G. The distribution and the abundance of hydrophytes along the Danube River in Serbia. Cent Eur J Biol. 2008;3:177-87.

Vukov D, Igić R. The Aquatic Plant Species Diversity in Large River Systems. In: Tepper GH, editor. Species Diversity and Extinction. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc; 2010. p. 361-81.

Connell JH. Diversity in tropical forests and coral reefs. Science. 1978;199:1302-10.

Huston MA. A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Nat. 1979;113:81-101.

Petraitis PS, Latham RE, Neisenbaum RA. The maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. Q Rev Biol. 1989;64:393-418.

Sikora A, Ürge L, Miklós D. Hydrology of the river Danube. Bratislava: Príroda;1988. 271 p.

Gavrilović Lj, Dukić D. Reke Srbije (Rivers of Serbia). Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva; 2002. 208 p.

European Standard EN 14184 − Water quality − Guidance standard for the surveying of macrophytes in running waters. Bruxelles: Comité Européen de Normalisation; 2014.

Kohler A, Janauer GA. Zur Methodik der Untersuchungen von aquatischen Makrophyten in Fließgewässern. In: Steinberg Ch, Bernhardt H, Klapper H, editors. Handbuch Angewandte Limnologie. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag; 1995. p. 1-22.

Fassett NC. A Manual of Aquatic Plants. New York, London: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc; 1940. 382 p.

Cook CDK. Aquatic plant book. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing; 1990. 228 p.

Felföldy L. Hínár Határozó. Vízügyi Hidrobiológia 18. kötet. Budapest: A Környezetvédelmi és Területfejlesztési Minisztérium; 1990. 145 p.

Preston CD. Pondweeds of the British Isles and Ireland. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI Handbook No. 8); 1995. 352 p.

Janauer GA, Heindl E. Die Schätzskala nach Kohler: Zur Gültigkeit der Funktion f(y)=ax3 als Maß für die Pflanzenmenge von Makrophyten. Verh Zool Bot Ges Osterr. 1998;137:117-28

Melzer A. Aquatic macrophytes as tools for lake management. Hydrobiologia. 1999;395/396:181-90.

Janauer GA, Steták D. Macrophytes of the Hungarian lower Danube valley (1498-1468 river km). Arch Hidrobiol. 2003;14(1-2, Suppl.147):167-80.

Di Nino F, Thiébaut G, Müller S. Response of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John to manual harvesting in the North-East of France. Hydrobiologia. 2005;551:147-57.

Hussner A, Losch AR. Alien aquatic plants in a thermally abnormal river and their assembly to neophyte-dominated macrophyte stands (River Erft, Northrhine-Wstphalia). Limnologica. 2005;35:18-30.

Janauer GA, Exler N. Distribution and habitat conditions of the six most frequent hydrophytes in the Danube River corridor: Status 2002. Limnol Reports. 2004;35:407-11.

Pall K, Ráth B, Janauer GA. Die Macrophyten in dynamischen und abgedämmten Gewässersystem der Kleinen Schüttinsel (Donau-Fluß.km 1848 bis 1806) in Ungarn. Limnologica. 1996;26:105-15.

Amoros C, Bornette G. Connectivity and biocomplexity in waterbodies of riverine floodplains. Freshwater Biol. 2002;47:761-76.

Demars BOL, Harper DM. Distribution of aquatic plants in lowland rivers: separating the effects of local environmental conditions, longitudinal connectivity and river basin isolation. Freshwater Biol. 2005;50:418-37.

Ot'ahel'ová H, Valachovič M. Diversity of macrophytes in aquatic habitats of the Danube river (Bratislava region, Slovakia). Thaiszia J Bot. 2006;16:27-40.

Akasaka M, Takamura N, Mitsuhashi H, Kadono Y. Effects of land use on aquatic macrophyte diversity and water quality of ponds. Freshwater Biol. 2009;55:909-22.

Capers RS, Selesky R, Bugbee GJ, White JC. Species richness of both native and invasive aquatic plants influenced by environmental conditions and human activity. Botany. 2009;87:306-14.

Svitok M, Hrivnák R, Kochjarová J, Ot'ahel'ová H, Paľove-Balang P. Environmental thresholds and predictors of macrophyte species richness in aquatic habitats in central Europe. Folia Geobot. 2015;DOI:10.1007/s12224-015-9211-2.

Van den Berg MS, Coops H, Meijer M-L, Scheffer M, Simons J. Clear water associated with a dense Chara vegetation in the shallow and turbid lake Veluwemeer, The Netherlands. In: Jeppesen E, Søndergaard M, Søndergaard M, Christoffersen K. editors. The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Ecol Stud. 1998;131:339-52.

Hilt S, Henschke I, Rücker J, Nixdorf B. Can submerged macrophytes influence turbidity and trophic state in deep lakes? Suggestions from a case study. J Environ Qual. 2010;39:725-33.

Furlanetto M. Field evidence of the influence of aquatic macrophytes on water quality in a shallow eutrophic lake over a 13-year period. Acta Limnol Bras. 2014;26:176-85.

Bornette G, Puijalon S. Response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors: a review. Aquat Sci. 2011;73:1-14.

Hrivnák R, Oťaheľová H, Valachovič M. The relationship between macrophyte vegetation and habitat factors along middle-size European river. Pol J Ecol. 2007;55:717-29.

Hrivnák R, Kochjarová J, Oťaheľová H, Paľove-Balang P, Slezák M, Slezák P. Environmental drivers of macrophyte species richness in artificial and natural water bodies - comparative approach from two central European regions. Ann Limnol - Int J Lim. 2014;50:269-78.

Sand-Jensen K. Influence of submerged macrophytes on sediment composition and near-bed flow in lowland streams. Freshwater Biol. 1998;39:663-79.

Denny M. Biology and the mechanics of the wave-swept environment. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1988. 329 p.

Vogel S. Life in moving fluids: the physical biology of flow. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1994. 467 p.

French TD, Chambers PA. Habitat partitioning in riverine macrophyte communities. Freshwater Biol. 1996;36:509-20.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.