Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti medik.) productivity in competitive conditions
Keywords:velvetleaf, density, vegetative parameters, fecundity
Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) is an invasive alien species in many countries and one of the major weeds in summer row crops worldwide. Weed-management techniques that reduce weed production need to be investigated to provide new approaches. The first step in this process is the determination of weed productivity in different competitive conditions. Field experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2008 in an experimental field in Padinska Skela to quantify growth and seed production of velvetleaf in maize, as well as in a velvetleaf monoculture. A density of velvetleaf ranging from 1 to 8 plants m-1 was artificially created. In a mixture with maize, velvetleaf was sown in crop rows. The growth of velvetleaf was estimated based on plant height, fresh aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Velvetleaf fecundity was determined as seed mass plant-1 and seed mass m-2. Differences between years in plant production were very prominent. In general, velvetleaf productivity in maize depended on its density. Intraspecific competition had a major influence on growth and seed production when velvetleaf density was from 4 to 8 plants m-1 in maize rows. This information indicates that environmental conditions and weed density can promote/reduce inter- and intraspecific competition and help in the construction of population dynamics models to predict population density, seed bank and competitiveness of weeds and reduce inputs for weed management.
Received: February 12, 2016; Revised: April 11, 2016; Accepted: April 19, 2016; Published online: October 4, 2016
How to cite this article: Vrbničanin S, Onć-Jovanović E, Božić D, Sarić-Krsmanović M, Pavlović D, Malidža G, Jarić S. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti medik.) productivity in competitive conditions. Arch Biol Sci. 2017;69(1):157-66.
Norsworthy JK. Effect of tillage intensity and herbicide programs on changes in weed species density and composition in the southeastern coastal plains of the United States. Crop Prot. 2008;27:151-60.
Gray JA, Balke NE, Stoltenberg DE. Increased Glutathione Conjugation of Atrazine Confers Resistance in a Wisconsin Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Biotype. Pestic Biochem Phys. 1996;55:157-71.
Beckie HJ, Tardif FJ. Herbicide cross resistance in weeds. Crop Prot. 2012;35:15-28.
Délye C, Jasieniuk M, Le Corre V. Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds. Trends Genet. 2013;29(11):649-58.
Lutman PJW, Wright KJ, Berry K, Freeman SE, Tatnell L. Estimation of seed production by Myosotis arvensis, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica persica and Viola arvensis under different competitive conditions. Weed Res. 2011;51:499-507.
Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia [Internet]. Belgrade: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 2015. [cited November 2015]. Available from: http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/Public/PageView.aspx?pKey=82.
Murphy SD, Yakubu Y, Weise SF, Swanton CJ. Effect of planting patterns and inter-row cultivation on competition between corn and late emerging weeds. Weed Sci. 1996;44:856-70.
Rajcan I, Swanton CJ. Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Res. 2001;71:139-50.
Oljača S, Vrbničanin S, Simić M, Stefanović L, Dolijanović Z. Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) interference in maize. Maydica. 2007;52:329-35.
Teasdale JR, Cavigelli MA. Subplots facilitate assessment of corn yield losses from weed competition in a long-term systems experiment. Agron Sustain Dev. 2010;30:445-53.
Lindquist JL, Maxwell BD, Buhler DD, Gunsolus JL. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) recruitment, survival, seed production, and interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 1995;43:226-32.
Lindquist JL, Mortensen DA, Clay SA, Schmenk R, Kells JJ, Howatt K, Westra PA. Stability of corn (Zea mays) – velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interference relationships. Weed Sci. 1996;44:309-13.
Teasdale JR. Influence of corn (Zea mays) population and row spacing on corn and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) yield. Weed Sci. 1998;46:447-53.
Nurse RE, DiTommaso A. Corn competition alters the germinability of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seeds. Weed Sci. 2005;53:479-88.
Cardina J, Regnier E, Sparrow D. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) competition and economic thresholds in conventional and no-tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci. 1995;43:81-7.
Bailey WA, Askew SD, Dorai-Raj S, Wilcut JW. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interference and seed production dynamics in cotton. Weed Sci. 2003;51:94-101.
Sattin M, Zanin G, Berti A. Case history for weed competition/population ecology: velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) in corn (Zea mays). Weed Tech. 1992;6:213-19.
Travlos IS, Kanatas PJ, Economou G, Kotoulas VE, Chachalis D, Tsiorost T. Evolution of velvetleaf interference with maize hybrids as influenced by relative time of emergence. Exp Agr. 2012;48(1):127-37.
Vrbničanin S, Malidža G, Stefanović L, Elezović I, Stanković-Kalezić R, Marisavljević D, Radovanov- Jovanović K, Pavlović D, Gavrić M. Distribution of some economic harmful, invasive and quarantine weeds in Serbia. I part: Spatial distribution and frequency of eight weed species. Biljni lekar. 2008;XXXVI:303-13. Serbian.
DiTomaso JM, Healy EA. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Oakland: University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources; 2007.
Weaver SE, Hamill AS. Effects of soil pH on competitive ability and leaf nutrition content of corn (Zea mays L.) and three weed species. Weed Sci. 1985;33:447-51.
Kremer RJ, Hughes LB, Aldrich RJ. Examination of microorganisms and deterioration resistance mechanisms associated with velvetleaf seed. Agron J. 1984;76:745-9.
Spencer NR. Velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae), history and economic impact in the United States. Econ Bot. 1984;38:407-16.
Hartzler RG. Velvetleaf population dynamics following a single year’s seed rain. Weed Tech. 1996;10:581-6.
Forcella F, Wilson RG, Dekker J, Kremer RJ, Cardina J, Anderson RL, Alm D, Renner KA, Harvey RG, Clay S, Buhle DD. Weed seed bank emergence across the corn belt. Weed Sci. 1997;45:67-76.
Aguiar MR, Lauenroth WK, Peters DP. Intensity of intra- and interspecific competition in coexisting shortgrass species. J Ecol. 2001;89:40-7.
Seefeldt SS, Jensen JE, Fuerst EP. Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol. 1995;9:218–27.
Werner EL, Curran WS, Harper JK, Roth GW, Knievel DP. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interference and seed production in corn silage and grain. Weed Tech. 2004;8:779-83.
Scholes C, Clay SA, Brix DK. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) effect on corn (Zea mays) growth and yield in South Dakota. Weed Tech. 1995;9:665-8.
Conley SP, Binning LK, Boerboom CM. Estimating giant foxtail cohort productivity in soybean based on weed density, leaf area, or volume. Weed Sci. 2002;50:72-8.
Munger PH, Chandler JM, Cothren JT, Hons FM. Soybean (Glycine max) – velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interspecific competition. Weed Sci. 1987;35:647-53.
Zanin G, Sattin M. Threshold level and seed production of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus) in maize. Weed Res. 1988;28:347-52.