Glandular trichomes, essential oil composition, anti-Aspergillus and antioxidative activities of Lamium purpureum L. ethanolic extracts
Keywords:Lamium purpureum, trichomes, essential oil, ethanolic extract, phenol, flavonoid content, biological activity
- Lamium purpureum L. (Lamiaceae) glandular trichomes and the composition of essential oil were analyzed.
- Two types of trichomes, non-glandular and glandular (peltate and capitate) were identified. The main compounds of essential oil were trans-anethole (59.61%), fenchone (6.54%), α-pinene (6.14%) and β-pinene (4.98%).
- The antioxidant activities of the ethanolic plant extracts were determined using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and TRP assays. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract was observed, While the extracts did not exhibit fungicidal activity, morphophysiological changes (sporulation loss, depigmentation of conidial heads) were observed in all tested isolates.
- L. purpureum could be a new potential source of natural antioxidants.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Lamium purpureum L. (Lamiaceae) and to determine potential biological activities of its different extracts. The micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on vegetative plant parts were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of trichomes were identified: non-glandular (simple, uniseriate, multicellular) and glandular (both peltate and capitate). The essential oil of L. purpureum was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main compounds were trans-anethole (59.61%), fenchone (6.54%), α-pinene (6.14%) and β-pinene (4.98%). The total phenol and flavonoid contents of 10%, 30% and 50% ethanol extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of extracts were analyzed using the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging methods, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total reducing power (TRP) assays. The 50% ethanolic extract exhibited the strongest antioxidative activity while the lowest was determined for the 10% ethanolic extract. Antifungal activity of L. purpureum hydroalcoholic extracts was evaluated against eight Aspergillus species by the microdilution method. Light microscopy (LM) demonstrated structural abnormalities of the tested Aspergilli. While the plant extracts did not exhibit fungicidal activity, morphophysiological changes (sporulation loss and depigmentation of conidial heads) were observed in all tested isolates.
Received: January 17, 2020; Revised: February 25; Accepted: April 7, 2020; Published online: April 23, 2020
How to cite this article: Grujić SM, Savković ŽD, Ristić MS, Džamić AM, Ljaljević Grbić MV, Vukojević JB, MarinPD. Glandular trichomes, essential oil composition, anti-Aspergillus and antioxidative activities of Lamium purpureum L. ethanolic extracts. Arch Biol Sci. 2020;72(2):253-63.
Ball PW. Genus Lamium L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, editors. Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1972. p. 151-7.
Cantino PD, Harley RM, Wagstaff SJ. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. In: Harley RM, Reynolds T, editors. Advances in Labiatae Science. London, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Kew; 1992. p. 511-22.
Yalcin FN, Kaya D. Ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). J Pharm Sci. 2006;31:43-52.
Bubueanu C, Iuksel R, Panteli M. Haemostatic activity of butanolic extracts of Lamium album and Lamium purpureum aerial parts. Acta Pharm. 2019;69:443-9.
Salehi B, Armstrong L, Rescigno A, Yeskaliyeva B, Seitimova G, Beyatli A, Shermeen J, Mahomoodally MF, Sharopov F, Durazzo A, Lucarini M, Santini A, Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Sharif-Rad J. Lamium plants ˗ A comprehensive review on health benefits and biological activities. Molecules. 2019;24:1-23.
Chipeva VA, Petrova D.C, Geneva ME, Dimitrova MA, Moncheva PA, Kapchina-Toteva VM. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from in vivo and in vitro propagated Lamium album L. plants. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10:559-62.
Dulger B. Antifungal activity of Lamium tenuifolium against some medicinal yeast Candida and Criptococcus species. Pharm Biol. 2009;47: 467-70.
Fathi H, Gholipur A, Ali Ebrahimzadeh M, Yasari E, Ahanjan M, Parsi B. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Lamium album extracts. Int J Pharm Sci. 2018;9(10):4210-9.
Yumrutas O, Saygidegar SD. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of Marrubium parviflorum Fish et Mey. and Lamium amplexicaule L. from South east of Turkey. J Med Pl Res. 2010;4:2164-72.
Valyova MS, Dimitrova MA, Ganeva YA, Kapchina-Toteva VM, Jordanova Z.P. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Lamium album L. growing in Bulgaria. J Pharm Res. 2011;4:945-7.
Bubueanu C, Campeanu G, Pirvu L, Bubueanu G. Antioxidant activity of butanolic extracts of Romanian native species – Lamium album and Lamium purpureum. Roman Biotechnol Lett. 2013;18:8855-62.
Paduch R, Matysik G, Wójciak-Kosior M, Kandefer-Szerszen M, Skalska-Kaminska A, Nowak-Kryska M, Niedziela P. Lamium album extracts express free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities. Pol J Environ Stud. 2008;17(4):569-80.
Akkol EK, Yalcin FN, Kaya D, Calis I, Yesilada E, Ersoz T. In vivo anti-inflammatory and nociceptive action of some Lamium species. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118:166-72.
Moskova Dumanova V, Miteva G, Dimitrova M, Topuzova-Hristova T, Kapchina V. Methanol and chloroform extracts from Lamium album L. Affect cell properties of a 549 cancer lung cell line. Biotechnol Equip. 2014;26:120-5.
Paduch R, Wozniak A. The effect of Lamium album extract on cultivated human corneal epithelial cells (10.014prsv-t). J Ophtalmic Vis Res. 2015;10:229-37.
Shuia C, Xingguo C, Zhide H. Identification and determination of ecdysone and phenylpropanoid glucoside and flavonoids in Lamium maculatum by capillary zone electrophoresis. Biomed Chromatogr. 2003;17:477-82.
Cao J, Yu H, Wu Y, Wang X. Occurrence and biological activity of phenylpropionyl iridoids. Mini Rew Med Chem. 2019:19(4):292-309.
Czerwinska ME, Swierczewska A, Wozniak M, Kiss AK. Bioassay guided isolation of iridoids and phenylpropanoids from aerial parts of Lamium album and their anti-inflammatory activity in human neutrophils. Planta Med. 2017;83(12-13):1011-9.
Dos Santos R, Vergauwen R, Pacolet P, Lescrinier E, den Ende WV. Manninotriose is a major carbohydrate in red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum, Lamiaceae). Ann Bot. 2013;111:385-93.
Kelayeh TPS, Abedinzade M, Ghorbani A. A review on biological effects of Lamium album (white deed nettle) and its components. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2019;8(3):185-93.
Akkoyunlu A, Dulger G. Chemical composition of Lamium purpureum L. and determination of anticancer activity of its essential oil on melanoma. Duzce Univerzitesi Bilim ve teknoloji Dergisi. 2019;7:1755-63.
Fahn A. Structure and Function of Secretory Cells. In: Hallahan DL, Gray JC, editors. Plant Trichomes. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p. 37-75. (Advances in Botanical Research; Vol. 31).
Werker E. Trichome diversity and development. In: Hallahan DL, Gray JC, editors. Plant Trichomes. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p. 1-35. (Advances in Botanical Research; Vol. 31).
Harley RM, Atkıns S, Budantsev A, Cantıno PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, De Kok R, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Rydıng O, Upson T. Labiatae. In: Kadereıt JW, editor. The families and genera of vascular plants. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 167-275.
Hanley ME, Lamont BB, Fairbanks MM, Rafferty CM. Plant structural traits and their role in antiherbivore defence. Plant Ecol Evol Syst. 2007;8:157-78.
Celep F, Kahraman A, Atalay Z, Dogan M. Morphology, anatomy and trichome properties of Lamium truncatum Boiss. (Lamiaceae) and their systematic implication. Aust J Crop Sci. 2011;5(2):147-53.
Atalay Z, Celep F, Baran F, Dogan M. Systematic significance of anatomy and trichome morphology in Lamium (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae). Flora. 2016;225:60-75.
Çalıs İÖ. Glandular trichomes on vegetative and reproductive organs of Lamium orientale (Lamiaceae). Mod Phytomorphol. 2017;11:15-9.
Jones CD, Woods KE, Setzer WN. A chemical ecological investigation of the allelopathic potential of Lamium amplexicaule and Lamium purpureum. J Ecol. 2012;2(4):167-77.
Sajjadi SE, Ghannadi A. Analysis of the essential oil of Lamium amplexicaule L. from Northeastern Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2012;15(4):577-81.
Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Akbarzadeh M. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of the Flowering Aerial Parts of Lamium album L. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2016;19(3):773-7.
Flamini G, Cioni PL, Moreli I. Composition of the essential oils and in vivo emission of volatiles of four Lamium species from Italy: L. purpureum, L. hybridum, L. bifidum and L. amplexicaule. Food Chem. 2005;91:63-8.
El Gazzar A, Watson L. A taxonomic study of Labiatae and related genera. Phytol. 1970;69:451-86.
Pharmacopoea Jugoslavica. Belgrade: National Institute for Health Protection; 1984. 2 vol. (Yugoslavian Pharmacopoeia; Vol. 4). Serbian.
Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 4th ed. Carol Stream, IL, USA: Allured Publishing Corporation; 2007. 804 p.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticult. 1965;16:144-58.
Park YK, Koo MH, Ikegaki M, Contado JL. Comparison of the flavonoid aglycone contents of Apis mellifera propolis from various regions of Brazil. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 1997;40:97-106.
Blos MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of stabile free radical. Nature. 1958;181:1199-200.
Miller NJ, Rice-Evans CA. Factor influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS radical cation assay. Free Radical Res. 1997;26:195-99.
Oyaizu M. Studies on product of browning reaction. J Hum Nutr Diet. 1986;44:307-15.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239:70-6.
Raper BK, Fennel DI. The Genus Aspergillus. Baltimore, Maryland: The Williams and Wilkins Company; 1965.
Samson RA, Houbraken J, Thrane U, Frisvad JC, Andersen B. Food and indoor fungi. Utrecht, Netherlands: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre; 2010. 390 p. (CBS laboratory manual series, 2).
Daouk KD, Dagher MS, Sattout JE. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. J Food Prot. 1995;58:1147-49.
Hanel H, Raether W. A more sophisticated method of determining the fungicidal effect of water-insoluble preparations with a cell harvester, using miconazole as an example. Mycoses. 1998;3:148-54.
Kocabas YZ, Karaman S. Essential oil of Lamiaceae from south east Mediterranean region (Turkey). Pac J Biol Sci.2001;4(10):1221-3.
Armatu A, Colceru-Mihul S, Bubueanu C, Draghici E, Pirvu L. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of some Lamiaceae species growing in Romania. Rom Biotech Lett. 2010;15(3):5274-80.
Grujić SM, Džamić AM, Mitić VD, Stankov-Jovanović V, Marin PD, Stojanović GS. Effects of solvent extraction system on antioxidant activity of Lamium purpureum L. Hem Ind. 2017;71(5):361-70.
Matkowski A, Tasrz P, Szypuła E. Antioxidant activity of herb extracts from five medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, subfamily Lamioideae. J Med Plants Res. 2008;2:321-30.
Hidalgo M, Sanches Moreno C, De Pascual Teresa S. Flavonoid-flavonoid interaction and its effect on their antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 2010;121(3):691-6.
Budzianowski J, Budzianowska A. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses of the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the fractionated extracts from Lamium album L., Lamium purpureum L. and Viscum album L. Herba Pol. 2006;52:52-7.
Trouillas P, Calliste CA, Allais DP, Simon A, Marfak A, Delge C, Duroux, JL. Antioxidant, antiinflamatory and antiproliferative properties of sixteen water plant extracts used in the Limousin Countryside as herbal teas. Food Chem. 2003;80(3):399-407.
Valyova MS, Dimitrova MA, Ganeva YA, Kapchina-Toteva VM, Yordanova ZP. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Lamium album L. growing in Bulgaria. J Pharm Res. 2011;4(4):945-7.
Mickienė R, Bakutis B, Maruška A, Ragažinskienė O, Kaškonienė V. Effect of the volatile secondary metabolites of Monarda didyma L., Lamium album L. and Myrrhis odorata L. plants against micromycetes of indoor environments of animals. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika. 2014;68(90):48-54.
Wheeler MH, Bell AA. Melanins and their importance in pathogenic fungi. In: McGinnis MR, editor. Current topics in medical mycology. New York: Springer-Verlag;. 1988. p. 338-87.
Tsai HF, Wheeler MH, Chang YC, Kwonchugi KJ. A developmentally regulated gene cluster involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. J Bacteriol. 1999;181(20):6469-77.
Inouye S, Watanabe M, Nishiyama Y, Takeo K, Akao M, Yamaguchi H. Antisporulation and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi. Mycoses. 1998;41:403-10.
de Billerbeck VG, Roques CG, Bessière JM, Fonvieille JL, Dargent R. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger. Can J Microbiol. 2001;47(1):9-17.
How to Cite
Authors grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.